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Title: The search for failed supernovae with the Large Binocular Telescope: N6946-BH1, still no star
ABSTRACT We present new Large Binocular Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer Space Telescope data for the failed supernova candidate N6946-BH1. We also report an unsuccessful attempt to detect the candidate with Chandra. The ∼300 000 $\, \mathrm{L}_\odot$ red supergiant progenitor underwent an outburst in 2009 and has since disappeared in the optical. In the LBT data from 2008 May through 2019 October, the upper limit on any increase in the R-band luminosity of the source is $2000 \, \mathrm{L}_\odot$. HST and Spitzer observations show that the source continued to fade in the near-IR and mid-IR, fading by approximately a factor of 2 between 2015 October and 2017 September to 2900 $\, \mathrm{L}_\odot$ at Hband (F160W). Models of the spectral energy distribution are inconsistent with a surviving star obscured either by an ongoing wind or dust formed in the transient. The disappearance of N6946-BH1 remains consistent with a failed supernova, but the post-failure phenomenology requires further theoretical study.
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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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1156 to 1164
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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