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Title: Supernovae producing unbound binaries and triples
ABSTRACT The fraction of stars that are in binaries or triples at the time of stellar death and the fraction of these systems that survive the supernova explosion are crucial constraints for evolution models and predictions for gravitational wave source populations. These fractions are also subject to direct observational determination. Here, we search 10 supernova remnants containing compact objects with proper motions for unbound binaries or triples using Gaia EDR3 and new statistical methods and tests for false positives. We confirm the one known example of an unbound binary, HD 37424 in G180.0−01.7, and find no other examples. Combining this with our previous searches for bound and unbound binaries, and assuming no bias in favour of finding interacting binaries, we find that 72.0 per cent (52.2–86.4 per cent, 90 per cent confidence) of supernova producing neutron stars are not binaries at the time of explosion, 13.9 per cent (5.4–27.2 per cent) produce bound binaries, and 12.5 per cent (2.8–31.3 per cent) produce unbound binaries. With a strong bias in favour of finding interacting binaries, the medians shift to 76.0 per cent were not binaries at death, 9.5 per cent leave bound binaries, and 13.2 per cent leave unbound binaries. Of explosions that do not leave binaries, ${\lt}18.9{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ can be fully unbound triples. These limits are conservatively for $M\gt more » 5\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ companions, although the mass limits for some individual systems are significantly stronger. At birth, the progenitor of PSR J0538+2817 was probably a 13–$19\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ star, and at the time of explosion, it was probably a Roche limited, partially stripped star transferring mass to HD 37424 and then producing a Type IIL or IIb supernova. « less
Authors:
Award ID(s):
1814440
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10348500
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
507
Issue:
4
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
5832 to 5846
ISSN:
0035-8711
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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