This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2023
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- Scientific Reports
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Rapid and specific detection of intact viral particles using functionalized microslit silicon membranes as a fouling-based sensorThe COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the public health benefits of reliable and accessible point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests for viral infections. Despite the rapid development of gold-standard reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays for SARS-CoV-2 only weeks into the pandemic, global demand created logistical challenges that delayed access to testing for months and helped fuel the spread of COVID-19. Additionally, the extreme sensitivity of RT-PCR had a costly downside as the tests could not differentiate between patients with active infection and those who were no longer infectious but still shedding viral genomes. To address these issues for the future, we propose a novel membrane-based sensor that only detects intact virions. The sensor combines affinity and size based detection on a membrane-based sensor and does not require external power to operate or read. Specifically, the presence of intact virions, but not viral debris, fouls the membrane and triggers a macroscopically visible hydraulic switch after injection of a 40 μL sample with a pipette. The device, which we call the μSiM-DX (microfluidic device featuring a silicon membrane for diagnostics), features a biotin-coated microslit membrane with pores ∼2–3× larger than the intact virus. Streptavidin-conjugated antibody recognizing viral surface proteins are incubated with the samplemore »
Aerosol-jet-printed graphene electrochemical immunosensors for rapid and label-free detection of SARS-CoV-2 in salivaAbstract Rapid, inexpensive, and easy-to-use coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) home tests are key tools in addition to vaccines in the world wide fight to eliminate national and local shutdowns. However, currently available tests for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, are too expensive, painful, and irritating, or not sufficiently sensitive for routine, accurate home testing. Herein, we employ custom-formulated graphene inks and aerosol jet printing to create a rapid electrochemical immunosensor for direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) in saliva samples acquired noninvasively. This sensor demonstrated limits of detection that are considerably lower than most commercial SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests (22.91 ± 4.72 pg ml −1 for spike RBD and 110.38 ± 9.00 pg ml −1 for spike S1) as well as fast response time (∼30 min), which was facilitated by the functionalization of printed graphene electrodes in a single-step with SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal antibody through the carbodiimide reaction without the need for nanoparticle functionalization or secondary antibody or metallic nanoparticle labels. This immunosensor presents a wide linear sensing range from 1 to 1000 ng ml −1 and does not react with other coexisting influenza viruses such as H1N1 hemagglutinin. By combining high-yield graphene ink synthesis, automated printing, high antigenmore »
The rapid diagnosis and effective inhibition of coronavirus using spike antibody attached gold nanoparticlesSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the coronavirus disease that began in 2019 (COVID-19), has been responsible for 1.4 million deaths worldwide as of 13 November 2020. Because at the time of writing no vaccine is yet available, a rapid diagnostic assay is very urgently needed. Herein, we present the development of anti-spike antibody attached gold nanoparticles for the rapid diagnosis of specific COVID-19 viral antigen or virus via a simple colorimetric change observation within a 5 minute time period. For rapid and highly sensitive identification, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was employed using 4-aminothiophenol as a reporter molecule, which is attached to the gold nanoparticle via an Au–S bond. In the presence of COVID-19 antigen or virus particles, owing to the antigen–antibody interaction, the gold nanoparticles undergo aggregation, changing color from pink to blue, which allows for the determination of the presence of antigen or virus very rapidly by the naked eye, even at concentrations of 1 nanogram (ng) per mL for COVID-19 antigen and 1000 virus particles per mL for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein pseudotyped baculovirus. Importantly, the aggregated gold nanoparticles form “hot spots” to provide very strong SERS signal enhancement from anti-spike antibody andmore »
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Discovery and characterization of high-affinity, potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies via single B cell screening
Monoclonal antibodies that target SARS-CoV-2 with high affinity are valuable for a wide range of biomedical applications involving novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnosis, treatment, and prophylactic intervention. Strategies for the rapid and reliable isolation of these antibodies, especially potent neutralizing antibodies, are critical toward improved COVID-19 response and informed future response to emergent infectious diseases. In this study, single B cell screening was used to interrogate antibody repertoires of immunized mice and isolate antigen-specific IgG1+memory B cells. Using these methods, high-affinity, potent neutralizing antibodies were identified that target the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2. Further engineering of the identified molecules to increase valency resulted in enhanced neutralizing activity. Mechanistic investigation revealed that these antibodies compete with ACE2 for binding to the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2. These antibodies may warrant further development for urgent COVID-19 applications. Overall, these results highlight the potential of single B cell screening for the rapid and reliable identification of high-affinity, potent neutralizing antibodies for infectious disease applications.