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  1. Abstract

    Quantum entanglement has emerged as a great resource for spectroscopy and its importance in two-photon spectrum and microscopy has been demonstrated. Current studies focus on the two-photon absorption, whereas the Raman spectroscopy with quantum entanglement still remains elusive, with outstanding issues of temporal and spectral resolutions. Here we study the new capabilities provided by entangled photons in coherent Raman spectroscopy. An ultrafast frequency-resolved Raman spectroscopy with entangled photons is developed for condensed-phase molecules, to probe the electronic and vibrational coherences. Using quantum correlation between the photons, the signal shows the capability of both temporal and spectral resolutions not accessible by either classical pulses or the fields without entanglement. We develop a microscopic theory for this Raman spectroscopy, revealing the electronic coherence dynamics even at timescale of 50fs. This suggests new paradigms of optical signals and spectroscopy, with potential to push detection below standard quantum limit.

     
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  2. Development of a simple, label-free screening technique capable of precisely and directly sensing interaction-in-solution over a size range from small molecules to large proteins such as antibodies could offer an important tool for researchers and pharmaceutical companies in the field of drug development. In this work, we present a thermostable Raman interaction profiling (TRIP) technique that facilitates low-concentration and low-dose screening of binding between protein and ligand in physiologically relevant conditions. TRIP was applied to eight protein–ligand systems, and produced reproducible high-resolution Raman measurements, which were analyzed by principal component analysis. TRIP was able to resolve time-depending binding between 2,4-dinitrophenol and transthyretin, and analyze biologically relevant SARS-CoV-2 spike-antibody interactions. Mixtures of the spike receptor–binding domain with neutralizing, nonbinding, or binding but nonneutralizing antibodies revealed distinct and reproducible Raman signals. TRIP holds promise for the future developments of high-throughput drug screening and real-time binding measurements between protein and drug. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 25, 2024
  3. Brillouin microscopy has recently emerged as a powerful tool for mechanical property measurements in biomedical sensing and imaging applications. Impulsive stimulated Brillouin scattering (ISBS) microscopy has been proposed for faster and more accurate measurements, which do not rely on stable narrow-band lasers and thermally-drifting etalon-based spectrometers. However, the spectral resolution of ISBS-based signal has not been significantly explored. In this report, the ISBS spectral profile has been investigated as a function of the pump beam’s spatial geometry, and novel methodologies have been developed for accurate spectral assessment. The ISBS linewidth was found to consistently decrease with increasing pump-beam diameter. These findings provide the means for improved spectral resolution measurements and pave the way to broader applications of ISBS microscopy.

     
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  4. Abstract Synchronized optical pulses are widely used. We report here characterization and measurement of synchronized femtosecond and picosecond pulses from a Ti:Sapphire laser (nominally 800 nm) and a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), respectively. Synchronization is achieved by utilizing soliton self-frequency shift in a photonic-crystal fiber that allows the 800 nm femtosecond oscillator to seed the third-harmonic generation (355 nm) of picosecond regenerative amplifier. The relative timing jitter between the amplified femtosecond and the third-harmonic generation of picosecond pulses is (710 ± 160) fs, which is only (1.17 ± 0.26)% of the picosecond pulse duration. This work paves way for applications in stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy and amplification. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 28, 2024
  5. Non-destructive measurements of internal morphological structures in plant materials such as seeds are of high interest in agricultural research. The estimation of pericarp thickness is important to understand the grain quality and storage stability of seeds and can play a crucial role in improving crop yield. In this study, we demonstrate the applicability of fiber-based Bessel beam Fourier domain (FD) optical coherence microscopy (OCM) with a nearly constant high lateral resolution maintained at over ~400 µm for direct non-invasive measurement of the pericarp thickness of two different sorghum genotypes. Whereas measurements based on axial profiles need additional knowledge of the pericarp refractive index, en-face views allow for direct distance measurements. We directly determine pericarp thickness from lateral sections with a 3 µm resolution by taking the width of the signal corresponding to the pericarp at the 1/e threshold. These measurements enable differentiation of the two genotypes with 100% accuracy. We find that trading image resolution for acquisition speed and view size reduces the classification accuracy. Average pericarp thicknesses of 74 µm (thick phenotype) and 43 µm (thin phenotype) are obtained from high-resolution lateral sections, and are in good agreement with previously reported measurements of the same genotypes. Extracting the morphological features of plant seeds using Bessel beam FD-OCM is expected to provide valuable information to the food processing industry and plant breeding programs. 
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  6. Artificial intelligence has recently been widely used in computational imaging. The deep neural network (DNN) improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the retrieved images, whose quality is otherwise corrupted due to the low sampling ratio or noisy environments. This work proposes a new computational imaging scheme based on the sequence transduction mechanism with the transformer network. The simulation database assists the network in achieving signal translation ability. The experimental single-pixel detector’s signal will be ‘translated’ into a 2D image in an end-to-end manner. High-quality images with no background noise can be retrieved at a sampling ratio as low as 2%. The illumination patterns can be either well-designed speckle patterns for sub-Nyquist imaging or random speckle patterns. Moreover, our method is robust to noise interference. This translation mechanism opens a new direction for DNN-assisted ghost imaging and can be used in various computational imaging scenarios.

     
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  7. Abstract In a viral pandemic, a few important tests are required for successful containment of the virus and reduction in severity of the infection. Among those tests, a test for the neutralizing ability of an antibody is crucial for assessment of population immunity gained through vaccination, and to test therapeutic value of antibodies made to counter the infections. Here, we report a sensitive technique to detect the relative neutralizing strength of various antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We used bright, photostable, background-free, fluorescent upconversion nanoparticles conjugated with SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain as a phantom virion. A glass bottom plate coated with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) protein imitates the target cells. When no neutralizing IgG antibody was present in the sample, the particles would bind to the ACE-2 with high affinity. In contrast, a neutralizing antibody can prevent particle attachment to the ACE-2-coated substrate. A prototype system consisting of a custom-made confocal microscope was used to quantify particle attachment to the substrate. The sensitivity of this assay can reach 4.0 ng/ml and the dynamic range is from 1.0 ng/ml to 3.2  $$\upmu$$ μ g/ml. This is to be compared to 19 ng/ml sensitivity of commercially available kits. 
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  8. We investigate quantum beats by monitoring cooperative emission from rubidium vapor and demonstrate correlated beats via coupled emission channels. We develop a theoretical model, and our simulations are in good agreement with experimental results. The results pave the way for advanced techniques measuring interactions between atoms that are excited to high energy levels. 
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