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  1. Abstract In a viral pandemic, a few important tests are required for successful containment of the virus and reduction in severity of the infection. Among those tests, a test for the neutralizing ability of an antibody is crucial for assessment of population immunity gained through vaccination, and to test therapeutic value of antibodies made to counter the infections. Here, we report a sensitive technique to detect the relative neutralizing strength of various antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We used bright, photostable, background-free, fluorescent upconversion nanoparticles conjugated with SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain as a phantom virion. A glass bottom plate coatedmore »with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) protein imitates the target cells. When no neutralizing IgG antibody was present in the sample, the particles would bind to the ACE-2 with high affinity. In contrast, a neutralizing antibody can prevent particle attachment to the ACE-2-coated substrate. A prototype system consisting of a custom-made confocal microscope was used to quantify particle attachment to the substrate. The sensitivity of this assay can reach 4.0 ng/ml and the dynamic range is from 1.0 ng/ml to 3.2  $$\upmu$$ μ g/ml. This is to be compared to 19 ng/ml sensitivity of commercially available kits.« less
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  9. Optical imaging through scattering media has long been a challenge. Many approaches have been developed for focusing light or imaging objects through scattering media, but usually, they are either invasive, limited to stationary or slow-moving media, or require high-resolution cameras and complex algorithms to retrieve the images. By utilizing spatial–temporal encoded patterns (STEPs), we introduce a technique for the computation of imaging that overcomes these restrictions. With a single-pixel photodetector, we demonstrate non-invasive imaging through scattering media. This technique is insensitive to the motion of the media. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our image reconstruction algorithm is much more efficient thanmore »correlation-based algorithms for single-pixel imaging, which may allow fast imaging for applications with limited computing resources.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023