The Cosmic Ultraviolet Baryon Survey (CUBS) – IV. The complex multiphase circumgalactic medium as revealed by partial Lyman limit systems
ABSTRACT We present a detailed study of two partial Lyman limit systems (pLLSs) of neutral hydrogen column density $N_\mathrm{H\, I}\approx (1-3)\times 10^{16}\, \mathrm{cm}^{-2}$ discovered at $z$ = 0.5 in the Cosmic Ultraviolet Baryon Survey (CUBS). Available far-ultraviolet spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and optical echelle spectra from MIKE on the Magellan Telescopes enable a comprehensive ionization analysis of diffuse circumgalactic gas based on resolved kinematics and abundance ratios of atomic species spanning five different ionization stages. These data provide unambiguous evidence of kinematically aligned multiphase gas that masquerades as a single-phase structure and can only be resolved by simultaneous accounting of the full range of observed ionic species. Both systems are resolved into multiple components with inferred α-element abundance varying from [α/H] ≈−0.8 to near solar and densities spanning over two decades from log nH/cm−3 ≈ −2.2 to <−4.3. Available deep galaxy survey data from the CUBS program taken with VLT/MUSE, Magellan/LDSS3-C and Magellan/IMACS reveal that the $z$ = 0.47 system is located 55 kpc from a star-forming galaxy with prominent Balmer absorption of stellar mass ${{M_{\rm star}}}\approx 2\times 10^{10}\, {{M_{\odot}}}$, while the $z$ = 0.54 system resides in an overdense environment of 11 galaxies within 750 kpc in projected distance, with more »
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10350066
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
508
Issue:
3
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
4359 to 4384
ISSN:
0035-8711
1. ABSTRACT We present a systematic investigation of physical conditions and elemental abundances in four optically thick Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) at z = 0.36–0.6 discovered within the cosmic ultraviolet baryon survey (CUBS). Because intervening LLSs at z < 1 suppress far-UV (ultraviolet) light from background QSOs, an unbiased search of these absorbers requires a near-UV-selected QSO sample, as achieved by CUBS. CUBS LLSs exhibit multicomponent kinematic structure and a complex mix of multiphase gas, with associated metal transitions from multiple ionization states such as C ii, C iii, N iii, Mg ii, Si ii, Si iii, O ii, O iii, O vi, and Fe ii absorption that span several hundred km s−1 in line-of-sight velocity. Specifically, higher column density components (log N(H i)/cm−2≳ 16) in all four absorbers comprise dynamically cool gas with $\langle T \rangle =(2\pm 1) \times 10^4\,$K and modest non-thermal broadening of $\langle b_\mathrm{nt} \rangle =5\pm 3\,$km s−1. The high quality of the QSO absorption spectra allows us to infer the physical conditions of the gas, using a detailed ionization modelling that takes into account the resolved component structures of H i and metal transitions. The range of inferred gas densities indicates that these absorbers consist of spatially compact clouds with a median line-of-sight thickness of $160^{+140}_{-50}$ pc. While obtaining robust metallicitymore »
2. ABSTRACT We present initial results from the Cosmic Ultraviolet Baryon Survey (CUBS). CUBS is designed to map diffuse baryonic structures at redshift z ≲ 1 using absorption-line spectroscopy of 15 UV-bright QSOs with matching deep galaxy survey data. CUBS QSOs are selected based on their NUV brightness to avoid biases against the presence of intervening Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at zabs < 1. We report five new LLSs of $\log \, N({\mathrm{ H} \,{\small I}})/{{\rm cm^{-2}}}\gtrsim 17.2$ over a total redshift survey path-length of $\Delta \, z_{\mathrm{ LL}}=9.3$, and a number density of $n(z)=0.43_{-0.18}^{+0.26}$. Considering all absorbers with $\log \, N({{\mathrm{ H} \,{\small I}}})/{{\rm cm^{-2}}}\gt 16.5$ leads to $n(z)=1.08_{-0.25}^{+0.31}$ at zabs < 1. All LLSs exhibit a multicomponent structure and associated metal transitions from multiple ionization states such as C ii, C iii, Mg ii, Si ii, Si iii, and O vi absorption. Differential chemical enrichment levels as well as ionization states are directly observed across individual components in three LLSs. We present deep galaxy survey data obtained using the VLT-MUSE integral field spectrograph and the Magellan Telescopes, reaching sensitivities necessary for detecting galaxies fainter than $0.1\, L_*$ at d ≲ 300 physical kpc (pkpc) in all five fields. A diverse range of galaxy properties ismore »
3. ABSTRACT We present and study a large suite of high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations, using the FIRE-2 treatment of mechanical and radiative feedback from massive stars, together with explicit treatment of magnetic fields, anisotropic conduction and viscosity (accounting for saturation and limitation by plasma instabilities at high β), and cosmic rays (CRs) injected in supernovae shocks (including anisotropic diffusion, streaming, adiabatic, hadronic and Coulomb losses). We survey systems from ultrafaint dwarf ($M_{\ast }\sim 10^{4}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$, $M_{\rm halo}\sim 10^{9}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$) through Milky Way/Local Group (MW/LG) masses, systematically vary uncertain CR parameters (e.g. the diffusion coefficient κ and streaming velocity), and study a broad ensemble of galaxy properties [masses, star formation (SF) histories, mass profiles, phase structure, morphologies, etc.]. We confirm previous conclusions that magnetic fields, conduction, and viscosity on resolved ($\gtrsim 1\,$ pc) scales have only small effects on bulk galaxy properties. CRs have relatively weak effects on all galaxy properties studied in dwarfs ($M_{\ast } \ll 10^{10}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$, $M_{\rm halo} \lesssim 10^{11}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$), or at high redshifts (z ≳ 1–2), for any physically reasonable parameters. However, at higher masses ($M_{\rm halo} \gtrsim 10^{11}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$) and z ≲ 1–2, CRs can suppress SF and stellar masses by factorsmore »
Hydrogen emission lines can provide extensive information about star-forming galaxies in both the local and high-redshift Universe. We present a detailed Lyman continuum (LyC), Lyman-α (Lyα), and Balmer line (Hα and Hβ) radiative transfer study of a high-resolution isolated Milky Way simulation using the state-of-the-art Arepo-RT radiation hydrodynamics code with the SMUGGLE galaxy formation model. The realistic framework includes stellar feedback, non-equilibrium thermochemistry accounting for molecular hydrogen, and dust grain evolution in the interstellar medium (ISM). We extend our publicly available Cosmic Lyα Transfer (COLT) code with photoionization equilibrium Monte Carlo radiative transfer and various methodology improvements for self-consistent end-to-end (non-)resonant line predictions. Accurate LyC reprocessing to recombination emission requires modelling pre-absorption by dust ($f_\text{abs} \approx 27.5\,\rm{per\,\,cent}$), helium ionization ($f_\text{He} \approx 8.7\,\rm{per\,\,cent}$), and anisotropic escape fractions ($f_\text{esc} \approx 7.9\,\rm{per\,\,cent}$), as these reduce the available budget for hydrogen line emission ($f_\text{H} \approx 55.9\,\rm{per\,\,cent}$). We investigate the role of the multiphase dusty ISM, disc geometry, gas kinematics, and star formation activity in governing the physics of emission and escape, focusing on the time variability, gas-phase structure, and spatial spectral, and viewing angle dependence of the emergent photons. Isolated disc simulations are well-suited for comprehensive observational comparisons with local Hα surveys, butmore »
5. ABSTRACT We revisit the question of ‘hot mode’ versus ‘cold mode’ accretion on to galaxies using steady-state cooling flow solutions and idealized 3D hydrodynamic simulations. We demonstrate that for the hot accretion mode to exist, the cooling time is required to be longer than the free-fall time near the radius where the gas is rotationally supported, Rcirc, i.e. the existence of the hot mode depends on physical conditions at the galaxy scale rather than on physical conditions at the halo scale. When allowing for the depletion of the halo baryon fraction relative to the cosmic mean, the longer cooling times imply that a virialized gaseous halo may form in halo masses below the threshold of $\sim 10^{12}\, {\rm M_{\odot }}$ derived for baryon-complete haloes. We show that for any halo mass there is a maximum accretion rate for which the gas is virialized throughout the halo and can accrete via the hot mode of ${\dot{M}}_{\rm crit}\approx 0.7(v_{\rm c}/100\, \rm km\ s^{-1})^{5.4}(R_{\rm circ}/10\, {\rm kpc})(Z/\, {\rm Z_{\odot }})^{-0.9}\, {\rm M_{\odot }}\, {\rm yr}^{-1}$, where Z and vc are the metallicity and circular velocity measured at Rcirc. For accretion rates $\gtrsim {\dot{M}}_{\rm crit}$ the volume-filling gas phase can in principle be ‘transonic’ –more »