skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on July 1, 2023

Title: PLATINUM: Semi-Supervised Model Agnostic Meta-Learning using Submodular Mutual Information
Few-shot classification (FSC) requires training models using a few (typically one to five) data points per class. Meta-learning has proven to be able to learn a parametrized model for FSC by training on various other classification tasks. In this work, we propose PLATINUM (semi-suPervised modeL Agnostic meTa learnIng usiNg sUbmodular Mutual information ), a novel semi-supervised model agnostic meta learning framework that uses the submodular mutual in- formation (SMI) functions to boost the perfor- mance of FSC. PLATINUM leverages unlabeled data in the inner and outer loop using SMI func- tions during meta-training and obtains richer meta- learned parameterizations. We study the per- formance of PLATINUM in two scenarios - 1) where the unlabeled data points belong to the same set of classes as the labeled set of a cer- tain episode, and 2) where there exist out-of- distribution classes that do not belong to the la- beled set. We evaluate our method on various settings on the miniImageNet, tieredImageNet and CIFAR-FS datasets. Our experiments show that PLATINUM outperforms MAML and semi- supervised approaches like pseduo-labeling for semi-supervised FSC, especially for small ratio of labeled to unlabeled samples.
Authors:
; ; ;
Editors:
Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Jegelka, Stefanie; Song, Le; Szepesyari, Csaba; Niu, Gang; Sabato, Sivan
Award ID(s):
2107449
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10350224
Journal Name:
International Conference on Machine Learning
Volume:
162
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
12826--12842
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Few-shot classification (FSC) requires training models using a few (typically one to five) data points per class. Meta learning has proven to be able to learn a parametrized model for FSC by training on various other classification tasks. In this work, we propose PLATINUM (semi-suPervised modeL Agnostic meTa-learnIng usiNg sUbmodular Mutual information), a novel semi-supervised model agnostic meta-learning framework that uses the submodular mutual information (SMI) functions to boost the performance of FSC. PLATINUM leverages unlabeled data in the inner and outer loop using SMI functions during meta-training and obtains richer meta-learned parameterizations for meta-test. We study the performance of PLATINUM in two scenarios - 1) where the unlabeled data points belong to the same set of classes as the labeled set of a certain episode, and 2) where there exist out-of-distribution classes that do not belong to the labeled set. We evaluate our method on various settings on the miniImageNet, tieredImageNet and Fewshot-CIFAR100 datasets. Our experiments show that PLATINUM outperforms MAML and semi-supervised approaches like pseduo-labeling for semi-supervised FSC, especially for small ratio of labeled examples per class.
  2. Weakly labeled data are inevitable in various research areas in artificial intelligence (AI) where one has a modicum of knowledge about the complete dataset. One of the reasons for weakly labeled data in AI is insufficient accurately labeled data. Strict privacy control or accidental loss may also cause missing-data problems. However, supervised machine learning (ML) requires accurately labeled data in order to successfully solve a problem. Data labeling is difficult and time-consuming as it requires manual work, perfect results, and sometimes human experts to be involved (e.g., medical labeled data). In contrast, unlabeled data are inexpensive and easily available. Due to there not being enough labeled training data, researchers sometimes only obtain one or few data points per category or label. Training a supervised ML model from the small set of labeled data is a challenging task. The objective of this research is to recover missing labels from the dataset using state-of-the-art ML techniques using a semisupervised ML approach. In this work, a novel convolutional neural network-based framework is trained with a few instances of a class to perform metric learning. The dataset is then converted into a graph signal, which is recovered using a recover algorithm (RA) in graphmore »Fourier transform. The proposed approach was evaluated on a Fashion dataset for accuracy and precision and performed significantly better than graph neural networks and other state-of-the-art methods« less
  3. Inspired by the extensive success of deep learning, graph neural networks (GNNs) have been proposed to learn expressive node representations and demonstrated promising performance in various graph learning tasks. However, existing endeavors predominately focus on the conventional semi-supervised setting where relatively abundant gold-labeled nodes are provided. While it is often impractical due to the fact that data labeling is unbearably laborious and requires intensive domain knowledge, especially when considering the heterogeneity of graph-structured data. Under the few-shot semi-supervised setting, the performance of most of the existing GNNs is inevitably undermined by the overfitting and oversmoothing issues, largely owing to the shortage of labeled data. In this paper, we propose a decoupled network architecture equipped with a novel meta-learning algorithm to solve this problem. In essence, our framework Meta-PN infers high-quality pseudo labels on unlabeled nodes via a meta-learned label propagation strategy, which effectively augments the scarce labeled data while enabling large receptive fields during training. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach offers easy and substantial performance gains compared to existing techniques on various benchmark datasets. The implementation and extended manuscript of this work are publicly available at https://github.com/kaize0409/Meta-PN.
  4. The problem of learning to generalize on unseen classes during the training step, also known as few-shot classification, has attracted considerable attention. Initialization based methods, such as the gradient-based model agnostic meta-learning (MAML) [1], tackle the few-shot learning problem by “learning to fine-tune”. The goal of these approaches is to learn proper model initialization so that the classifiers for new classes can be learned from a few labeled examples with a small number of gradient update steps. Few shot meta-learning is well-known with its fast-adapted capability and accuracy generalization onto unseen tasks [2]. Learning fairly with unbiased outcomes is another significant hallmark of human intelligence, which is rarely touched in few-shot meta-learning. In this work, we propose a novel Primal-Dual Fair Meta-learning framework, namely PDFM, which learns to train fair machine learning models using only a few examples based on data from related tasks. The key idea is to learn a good initialization of a fair model’s primal and dual parameters so that it can adapt to a new fair learning task via a few gradient update steps. Instead of manually tuning the dual parameters as hyperparameters via a grid search, PDFM optimizes the initialization of the primal and dualmore »parameters jointly for fair meta-learning via a subgradient primal-dual approach. We further instantiate an example of bias controlling using decision boundary covariance (DBC) [3] as the fairness constraint for each task, and demonstrate the versatility of our proposed approach by applying it to classification on a variety of three real-world datasets. Our experiments show substantial improvements over the best prior work for this setting.« less
  5. This paper presents a semi-supervised learning framework for a customized semantic segmentation task using multiview image streams. A key challenge of the customized task lies in the limited accessibility of the labeled data due to the requirement of prohibitive manual annotation effort. We hypothesize that it is possible to leverage multiview image streams that are linked through the underlying 3D geometry, which can provide an additional supervisionary signal to train a segmentation model. We formulate a new cross-supervision method using a shape belief transfer---the segmentation belief in one image is used to predict that of the other image through epipolar geometry analogous to shape-from-silhouette. The shape belief transfer provides the upper and lower bounds of the segmentation for the unlabeled data where its gap approaches asymptotically to zero as the number of the labeled views increases. We integrate this theory to design a novel network that is agnostic to camera calibration, network model, and semantic category and bypasses the intermediate process of suboptimal 3D reconstruction. We validate this network by recognizing a customized semantic category per pixel from realworld visual data including non-human species and a subject of interest in social videos where attaining large-scale annotation data is infeasible.