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Title: The Effect of Phenoloxidase Activity on Survival Is Host Plant Dependent in Virus-Infected Caterpillars
Abstract An important goal of disease ecology is to understand trophic interactions influencing the host–pathogen relationship. This study focused on the effects of diet and immunity on the outcome of viral infection for the polyphagous butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) (painted lady). Specifically, we aimed to understand the role that larval host plants play when fighting a viral pathogen. Larvae were orally inoculated with the entomopathogenic virus, Junonia coenia densovirus (JcDV) (Family Parvoviridae, subfamily Densovirinae, genus Protoambidensovirus, species Lepidopteran protoambidensovirus 1) and reared on two different host plants (Lupinus albifrons Bentham (Fabales: Fabaceae) or Plantago lanceolata Linnaeus (Lamiales: Plantaginaceae)). Following viral infection, the immune response (i.e., phenoloxidase [PO] activity), survival to adulthood, and viral load were measured for individuals on each host plant. We found that the interaction between the immune response and survival of the viral infection was host plant dependent. The likelihood of survival was lowest for infected larvae exhibiting suppressed PO activity and feeding on P. lanceolata, providing some evidence that PO activity may be an important defense against viral infection. However, for individuals reared on L. albifrons, the viral infection had a negligible effect on the immune response, and these individuals also had higher survival more » and lower viral load when infected with the pathogen compared to the controls. Therefore, we suggest that host plant modifies the effects of JcDV infection and influences caterpillars’ response when infected with the virus. Overall, we conclude that the outcome of viral infection is highly dependent upon diet, and that certain host plants can provide protection from pathogens regardless of immunity. « less
Authors:
;
Editors:
Jaronski, Stefan
Award ID(s):
1929522
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10353289
Journal Name:
Journal of Insect Science
Volume:
20
Issue:
5
ISSN:
1536-2442
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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