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A ribosome-associated chaperone enables substrate triage in a cotranslational protein targeting complexAbstract Protein biogenesis is essential in all cells and initiates when a nascent polypeptide emerges from the ribosome exit tunnel, where multiple ribosome-associated protein biogenesis factors (RPBs) direct nascent proteins to distinct fates. How distinct RPBs spatiotemporally coordinate with one another to affect accurate protein biogenesis is an emerging question. Here, we address this question by studying the role of a cotranslational chaperone, nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC), in regulating substrate selection by signal recognition particle (SRP), a universally conserved protein targeting machine. We show that mammalian SRP and SRP receptors (SR) are insufficient to generate the biologically required specificity for protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum. NAC co-binds with and remodels the conformational landscape of SRP on the ribosome to regulate its interaction kinetics with SR, thereby reducing the nonspecific targeting of signalless ribosomes and pre-emptive targeting of ribosomes with short nascent chains. Mathematical modeling demonstrates that the NAC-induced regulations of SRP activity are essential for the fidelity of cotranslational protein targeting. Our work establishes a molecular model for how NAC acts as a triage factor to prevent protein mislocalization, and demonstrates how the macromolecular crowding of RPBs at the ribosome exit site enhances the fidelity of substrate selection intomore »
A molecular recognition feature mediates ribosome-induced SRP-receptor assembly during protein targetingMolecular recognition features (MoRFs) provide interaction motifs in intrinsically disordered protein regions to mediate diverse cellular functions. Here we report that a MoRF element, located in the disordered linker domain of the mammalian signal recognition particle (SRP) receptor and conserved among eukaryotes, plays an essential role in sensing the ribosome during cotranslational protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum. Loss of the MoRF in the SRP receptor (SR) largely abolishes the ability of the ribosome to activate SRP-SR assembly and impairs cotranslational protein targeting. These results demonstrate a novel role for MoRF elements and provide a mechanism for the ribosome-induced activation of the mammalian SRP pathway. Kinetic analyses and comparison with the bacterial SRP further suggest that the SR MoRF functionally replaces the essential GNRA tetraloop in the bacterial SRP RNA, providing an example for the replacement of RNA function by proteins during the evolution of ancient ribonucleoprotein particles.
Fidelity of protein targeting is essential for the proper biogenesis and functioning of organelles. Unlike replication, transcription and translation processes, in which multiple mechanisms to recognize and reject noncognate substrates are established in energetic and molecular detail, the mechanisms by which cells achieve a high fidelity in protein localization remain incompletely understood. Signal recognition particle (SRP), a conserved pathway to mediate the localization of membrane and secretory proteins to the appropriate cellular membrane, provides a paradigm to understand the molecular basis of protein localization in the cell. In this chapter, we review recent progress in deciphering the molecular mechanisms and substrate selection of the mammalian SRP pathway, with an emphasis on the key role of the cotranslational chaperone NAC in preventing protein mistargeting to the ER and in ensuring the organelle specificity of protein localization.
The signal recognition particle (SRP) directs translating ribosome-nascent chain complexes (RNCs) that display a signal sequence to protein translocation channels in target membranes. All previous work on the initial step of the targeting reaction, when SRP binds to RNCs, used stalled and non-translating RNCs. This meant that an important dimension of the co-translational process remained unstudied. We apply single-molecule fluorescence measurements to observe directly and in real-time E. coli SRP binding to actively translating RNCs. We show at physiologically relevant SRP concentrations that SRP-RNC association and dissociation rates depend on nascent chain length and the exposure of a functional signal sequence outside the ribosome. Our results resolve a long-standing question: how can a limited, sub-stoichiometric pool of cellular SRP effectively distinguish RNCs displaying a signal sequence from those that are not? The answer is strikingly simple: as originally proposed, SRP only stably engages translating RNCs exposing a functional signal sequence.
Asparagine-linked glycosylation, also known as N-linked glycosylation is an essential and highly conserved post-translational protein modification that occurs in all three domains of life. This modification is essential for specific molecular recognition, protein folding, sorting in the endoplasmic reticulum, cell–cell communication, and stability. Defects in N-linked glycosylation results in a class of inherited diseases known as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). N-linked glycosylation occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen by a membrane associated enzyme complex called the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). In the central step of this reaction, an oligosaccharide group is transferred from a lipid-linked dolichol pyrophosphate donor to the acceptor substrate, the side chain of a specific asparagine residue of a newly synthesized protein. The prokaryotic OST enzyme consists of a single polypeptide chain, also known as single subunit OST or ssOST. In contrast, the eukaryotic OST is a complex of multiple non-identical subunits. In this review, we will discuss the biochemical and structural characterization of the prokaryotic, yeast, and mammalian OST enzymes. This review explains the most recent high-resolution structures of OST determined thus far and the mechanistic implication of N-linked glycosylation throughout all domains of life. It has been shown that the ssOST enzyme, AglB protein ofmore »