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Title: Enhancing Quality of Experience for Collaborative Virtual Reality with Commodity Mobile Devices
Virtual Reality (VR), together with the network infrastructure, can provide an interactive and immersive experience for multiple users simultaneously and thus enables collaborative VR applications (e.g., VR-based classroom). However, the satisfactory user experience requires not only high-resolution panoramic image rendering but also extremely low latency and seamless user experience. Besides, the competition for limited network resources (e.g., multiple users share the total limited bandwidth) poses a significant challenge to collaborative user experience, in particular under the wireless network with time-varying capacities. While existing works have tackled some of these challenges, a principled design considering all those factors is still missing. In this paper, we formulate a combinatorial optimization problem to maximize the Quality of Experience (QoE), defined as the linear combination of the quality, the average VR content delivery delay, and variance of the quality over a finite time horizon. In particular, we incorporate the influence of imperfect motion prediction when considering the quality of the perceived contents. However, the optimal solution to this problem can not be implemented in real-time since it relies on future decisions. Then, we decompose the optimization problem into a series of combinatorial optimization in each time slot and develop a low-complexity algorithm that can achieve at least 1/2 of the optimal value. Despite this, the trace-based simulation results reveal that our algorithm performs very close to the optimal offline solution. Furthermore, we implement our proposed algorithm in a practical system with commercial mobile devices and demonstrate its superior performance over state-of-the-art algorithms. We open-source our implementations on  more » « less
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National Science Foundation
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