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Title: Ruga mechanics of soft-orifice closure under external pressure
Here, we report the closure resistance of a soft-material bilayer orifice increases against external pressure, along with ruga-phase evolution, in contrast to the conventional predictions of the matrix-free cylindrical-shell buckling pressure. Experiments demonstrate that the generic soft-material orifice creases in a threefold symmetry at a limit-load pressure of p / μ  ≈ 1.20, where μ is the shear modulus. Once the creasing initiates, the triple crease wings gradually grow as the pressure increases until the orifice completely closes at p / μ  ≈ 3.0. By contrast, a stiff-surface bilayer orifice initially wrinkles with a multifold symmetry mode and subsequently develops ruga-phase evolution, progressively reducing the orifice cross-sectional area as pressure increases. The buckling-initiation mode is determined by the layer's thickness and stiffness, and the pressure by two types of the layer's instability modes—the surface-layer-wrinkling mode for a compliant and the ring-buckling mode for a stiff layer. The ring-buckling mode tends to set the twofold symmetry for the entire post-buckling closure process, while the high-frequency surface-layer-wrinkling mode evolves with successive symmetry breaking to a final closure configuration of two- or threefold symmetry. Finally, we found that the threefold symmetry mode for the entire closure process provides the orifice's strongest closure resistance, and human saphenous veins remarkably follow this threefold symmetry ruga evolution pathway.  more » « less
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Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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