skip to main content

Title: Residue-Net: Multiplication-free Neural Network by In-situ, No-loss Migration to Residue Number Systems
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
26th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC)
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Determining the pKa of key functional groups is critical to understanding the pH-dependent behavior of biological proteins and peptide-based biomaterials. Traditionally, 1H NMR spectroscopy has been used to determine the pKa of amino acids; however, for larger molecules and aggregating systems, this method can be practically impossible. Previous studies concluded that the C-D stretches in Raman are a useful alternative for determining the pKa of histidine residues. In this study, we report on the Raman application of the C2-D probe on histidine’s imidazole side chain to determining the pKa of histidine in a short peptide sequence. The pKa of the tripeptide was found via difference Raman spectroscopy to be 6.82, and this value was independently confirmed via 1H NMR spectroscopy on the same peptide. The C2-D probe was also compared to other Raman reporters of the protonation state of histidine and was determined to be more sensitive and reliable than other protonation-dependent signals. The C2-D Raman probe expands the tool box available to chemists interested in directly interrogating the pKa’s of histidine-containing peptide and protein systems. 
    more » « less
  2. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)—one of the most widely applied genetically encoded fluorescent probes—carries the threonine-tyrosine-glycine (TYG) chromophore. EGFP efficiently undergoes green-to-red oxidative photoconversion (“redding”) with electron acceptors. Enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), a close EGFP homologue (five amino acid substitutions), has a glycine-tyrosine-glycine (GYG) chromophore and is much less susceptible to redding, requiring halide ions in addition to the oxidants. In this contribution we aim to clarify the role of the first chromophore-forming amino acid in photoinduced behavior of these fluorescent proteins. To that end, we compared photobleaching and redding kinetics of EGFP, EYFP, and their mutants with reciprocally substituted chromophore residues, EGFP-T65G and EYFP-G65T. Measurements showed that T65G mutation significantly increases EGFP photostability and inhibits its excited-state oxidation efficiency. Remarkably, while EYFP-G65T demonstrated highly increased spectral sensitivity to chloride, it is also able to undergo redding chloride-independently. Atomistic calculations reveal that the GYG chromophore has an increased flexibility, which facilitates radiationless relaxation leading to the reduced fluorescence quantum yield in the T65G mutant. The GYG chromophore also has larger oscillator strength as compared to TYG, which leads to a shorter radiative lifetime (i.e., a faster rate of fluorescence). The faster fluorescence rate partially compensates for the loss of quantum efficiency due to radiationless relaxation. The shorter excited-state lifetime of the GYG chromophore is responsible for its increased photostability and resistance to redding. In EYFP and EYFP-G65T, the chromophore is stabilized by π-stacking with Tyr203, which suppresses its twisting motions relative to EGFP. 
    more » « less