The decompiler is one of the most common tools for examining executable binaries without the corresponding source code. It transforms binaries into high-level code, reversing the compilation process. Unfortunately, decompiler output is far from readable because the decompilation process is often incomplete. State-of-the-art techniques use machine learning to predict missing information like variable names. While these approaches are often able to suggest good variable names in context, no existing work examines how the selection of training data influences these machine learning models. We investigate how data provenance and the quality of training data affect performance, and how well, if at all, trained models generalize across software domains. We focus on the variable renaming problem using one such machine learning model, DIRE . We first describe DIRE in detail and the accompanying technique used to generate training data from raw code. We also evaluate DIRE ’s overall performance without respect to data quality. Next, we show how training on more popular, possibly higher quality code (measured using GitHub stars) leads to a more generalizable model because popular code tends to have more diverse variable names. Finally, we evaluate how well DIRE predicts domain-specific identifiers, propose a modification to incorporate domain information,more »
Augmenting Decompiler Output with Learned Variable Names and Types
A common tool used by security professionals for reverse engineering binaries found in the wild is the decompiler. A decompiler attempts to reverse compilation, transforming a binary to a higher-level language such as C. High-level languages ease reasoning about programs by providing useful abstractions such as loops, typed variables, and comments, but these abstractions are lost during compilation. Decompilers are able to deterministically reconstruct structural properties of code, but comments, variable names, and custom variable types are technically impossible to recover. In this paper we present DIRTY (DecompIled variable ReTYper), a novel technique for improving the quality of decompiler output that automatically generates meaningful variable names and types. DIRTY is built on a Transformer based neural network model and is trained on code automatically scraped from repositories on GitHub. DIRTY uses this model to postprocesses decompiled files, recommending variable types and names given their context. Empirical evaluation on a novel dataset of C code mined from GitHub shows that DIRTY outperforms prior work approaches by a sizable margin, recovering the original names written by developers 66.4% of the time and the original types 75.8% of the time.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- USENIX Security Symposium
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Decompiling binary executables to high-level code is an important step in reverse engineering scenarios, such as malware analysis and legacy code maintenance. However, the generated high-level code is difficult to understand since the original variable names are lost. In this paper, we leverage transformer models to reconstruct the original variable names from decompiled code. Inherent differences between code and natural language present certain challenges in applying conventional transformer-based architectures to variable name recovery. We propose DIRECT, a novel transformer-based architecture customized specifically for the task at hand. We evaluate our model on a dataset of decompiled functions and find that DIRECT outperforms the previous state-of-the-art model by up to 20%. We also present ablation studies evaluating the impact of each of our modifications. We make the source code of DIRECT available to encourage reproducible research.
Much software, whether beneficent or malevolent, is distributed only as binaries, sans source code. Absent source code, understanding binaries' behavior can be quite challenging, especially when compiled under higher levels of compiler optimization. These optimizations can transform comprehensible, ``natural" source constructions into something entirely unrecognizable. Reverse engineering binaries, especially those suspected of being malevolent or guilty of intellectual property theft, are important and time-consuming tasks. There is a great deal of interest in tools to ``decompile" binaries back into more natural source code to aid reverse engineering. Decompilation involves several desirable steps, including recreating source-language constructions, variable names, and perhaps even comments. One central step in creating binaries is optimizing function calls, using steps such as inlining. Recovering these (possibly inlined) function calls from optimized binaries is an essential task that most state-of-the-art decompiler tools try to do but do not perform very well. In this paper, we evaluate a supervised learning approach to the problem of recovering optimized function calls. We leverage open-source software and develop an automated labeling scheme to generate a reasonably large dataset of binaries labeled with actual function usages. We augment this large but limited labeled dataset with a pre-training step, which learns the decompiledmore »
Memory models play an important role in verified compilation of imperative programming languages. A representative one is the block-based memory model of CompCert---the state-of-the-art verified C compiler. Despite its success, the abstraction over memory space provided by CompCert's memory model is still primitive and inflexible. In essence, it uses a fixed representation for identifying memory blocks in a global memory space and uses a globally shared state for distinguishing between used and unused blocks. Therefore, any reasoning about memory must work uniformly for the global memory; it is impossible to individually reason about different sub-regions of memory (i.e., the stack and global definitions). This not only incurs unnecessary complexity in compiler verification, but also poses significant difficulty for supporting verified compilation of open or concurrent programs which need to work with contextual memory, as manifested in many previous extensions of CompCert. To remove the above limitations, we propose an enhancement to the block-based memory model based on nominal techniques; we call it the nominal memory model. By adopting the key concepts of nominal techniques such as atomic names and supports to model the memory space, we are able to 1) generalize the representation of memory blocks to any types satisfyingmore »
HeteroGen: transpiling C to heterogeneous HLS code with automated test generation and program repairDespite the trend of incorporating heterogeneity and specialization in hardware, the development of heterogeneous applications is limited to a handful of engineers with deep hardware expertise. We propose HeteroGen that takes C/C++ code as input and automatically generates an HLS version with test behavior preservation and better performance. Key to the success of HeteroGen is adapting the idea of search-based program repair to the heterogeneous computing domain, while addressing two technical challenges. First, the turn-around time of HLS compilation and simulation is much longer than the usual C/C++ compilation and execution time; therefore, HeteroGen applies pattern-oriented program edits guided by common fix patterns and their dependences. Second, behavior and performance checking requires testing, but test cases are often unavailable. Thus, HeteroGen auto-generates test inputs suitable for checking C to HLS-C conversion errors, while providing high branch coverage for the original C code. An evaluation of HeteroGen shows that it produces an HLS-compatible version for nine out of ten real-world heterogeneous applications fully automatically, applying up to 438 lines of edits to produce an HLS version 1.63x faster than the original version.