skip to main content

Title: Screening Effects on Electron-Capture Rates and Type Ia Supernova Nucleosynthesis
Nucleosynthesis of iron-group elements in Type Ia supernovae is studied for single-degenerate models with the use of electron-capture rates updated with the new shell-model Hamiltonian in pf -shell. An over-production problem of neutron-rich iron-group isotopes compared with the solar abundances is now found to be suppressed within a factor of about twice for the updated weak rates. Effects of screening on nucleosynthesis are investigated for explosion models of fast deflagration and slow deflagration with delayed detonation. The e-capture rates are reduced by the screening, especially by the screening effects on the ions. The production yields of most neutron-rich isotopes such as 50 Ti, 54 Cr and 58 Fe are found to be suppressed most by the screening. The inclusion of the screening is desirable for precise evaluation of abundances of neutron-rich nuclides.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Liu, W.; Wang, Y.; Guo, B.; Tang, X.; Zeng, S.
Date Published:
Journal Name:
EPJ Web of Conferences
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. ABSTRACT The origin of the proton-rich trans-iron isotopes in the Solar system is still uncertain. Single-degenerate thermonuclear supernovae (SNIa) with n-capture nucleosynthesis seeds assembled in the external layers of the progenitor’s rapidly accreting white dwarf (RAWD) phase may produce these isotopes. We calculate the stellar structure of the accretion phase of five white dwarf (WD) models with initial masses ≥ 0.85 $\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ using the stellar code mesa The near-surface layers of the 1, 1.26, 1.32 and 1.38 $\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ models are most representative of the regions in which the bulk of the p nuclei are produced during SNIa explosions, and for these models we also calculate the neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the external layers. Contrary to previous RAWD models at lower mass, we find that the H-shell flashes are the main site of n-capture nucleosynthesis. We find high neutron densities up to several 1015 cm−3 in the most massive WDs. Through the recurrence of the H-shell flashes these intermediate neutron densities can be sustained effectively for a long time leading to high-neutron exposures with a strong production up to Pb. Both the neutron density and the neutron exposure increase with increasing the mass of the accreting WD. Finally, the SNIa nucleosynthesis is calculated using the obtained abundances as seeds. We obtain solar to supersolar abundances for p-nuclei with A > 96. Our models show that SNIa are a viable p-process production site. 
    more » « less
  2. Context. At present, there are strong indications that white dwarf (WD) stars with masses well below the Chandrasekhar limit ( M Ch ≈ 1.4 M ⊙ ) contribute a significant fraction of SN Ia progenitors. The relative fraction of stable iron-group elements synthesized in the explosion has been suggested as a possible discriminant between M Ch and sub- M Ch events. In particular, it is thought that the higher-density ejecta of M Ch WDs, which favours the synthesis of stable isotopes of nickel, results in prominent [Ni  II ] lines in late-time spectra (≳150 d past explosion). Aims. We study the explosive nucleosynthesis of stable nickel in SNe Ia resulting from M Ch and sub- M Ch progenitors. We explore the potential for lines of [Ni  II ] in the optical an near-infrared (at 7378 Å and 1.94 μm) in late-time spectra to serve as a diagnostic of the exploding WD mass. Methods. We reviewed stable Ni yields across a large variety of published SN Ia models. Using 1D M Ch delayed-detonation and sub- M Ch detonation models, we studied the synthesis of stable Ni isotopes (in particular, 58 Ni) and investigated the formation of [Ni  II ] lines using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative-transfer simulations with the CMFGEN code. Results. We confirm that stable Ni production is generally more efficient in M Ch explosions at solar metallicity (typically 0.02–0.08 M ⊙ for the 58 Ni isotope), but we note that the 58 Ni yield in sub- M Ch events systematically exceeds 0.01 M ⊙ for WDs that are more massive than one solar mass. We find that the radiative proton-capture reaction 57 Co( p ,  γ ) 58 Ni is the dominant production mode for 58 Ni in both M Ch and sub- M Ch models, while the α -capture reaction on 54 Fe has a negligible impact on the final 58 Ni yield. More importantly, we demonstrate that the lack of [Ni  II ] lines in late-time spectra of sub- M Ch events is not always due to an under-abundance of stable Ni; rather, it results from the higher ionization of Ni in the inner ejecta. Conversely, the strong [Ni  II ] lines predicted in our 1D M Ch models are completely suppressed when 56 Ni is sufficiently mixed with the innermost layers, which are rich in stable iron-group elements. Conclusions. [Ni  II ] lines in late-time SN Ia spectra have a complex dependency on the abundance of stable Ni, which limits their use in distinguishing among M Ch and sub- M Ch progenitors. However, we argue that a low-luminosity SN Ia displaying strong [Ni  II ] lines would most likely result from a Chandrasekhar-mass progenitor. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Accurate nuclear reaction rates for26P(p,γ)27S are pivotal for a comprehensive understanding of therp-process nucleosynthesis path in the region of proton-rich sulfur and phosphorus isotopes. However, large uncertainties still exist in the current rate of26P(p,γ)27S because of the lack of nuclear mass and energy level structure information for27S. We reevaluate this reaction rate using the experimentally constrained27S mass, together with the shell model predicted level structure. It is found that the26P(p,γ)27S reaction rate is dominated by a direct capture reaction mechanism despite the presence of three resonances atE= 1.104, 1.597, and 1.777 MeV above the proton threshold in27S. The new rate is overall smaller than the other previous rates from the Hauser–Feshbach statistical model by at least 1 order of magnitude in the temperature range of X-ray burst interest. In addition, we consistently update the photodisintegration rate using the new27S mass. The influence of new rates of forward and reverse reaction in the abundances of isotopes produced in therp-process is explored by postprocessing nucleosynthesis calculations. The final abundance ratio of27S/26P obtained using the new rates is only 10% of that from the old rate. The abundance flow calculations show that the reaction path26P(p,γ)27S(β+,ν)27P is not as important as previously thought for producing27P. The adoption of the new reaction rates for26P(p,γ)27S only reduces the final production of aluminum by 7.1% and has no discernible impact on the yield of other elements.

    more » « less
  4. Context. The γ -process nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae is generally accepted as a feasible process for the synthesis of neutron-deficient isotopes beyond iron. However, crucial discrepancies between theory and observations still exist: the average yields of γ -process nucleosynthesis from massive stars are still insufficient to reproduce the solar distribution in galactic chemical evolution calculations, and the yields of the Mo and Ru isotopes are a factor of ten lower than the yields of the other γ -process nuclei. Aims. We investigate the γ -process in five sets of core-collapse supernova models published in the literature with initial masses of 15, 20, and 25 M ⊙ at solar metallicity. Methods. We compared the γ -process overproduction factors from the different models. To highlight the possible effect of nuclear physics input, we also considered 23 ratios of two isotopes close to each other in mass relative to their solar values. Further, we investigated the contribution of C–O shell mergers in the supernova progenitors as an additional site of the γ -process. Results. Our analysis shows that a large scatter among the different models exists for both the γ -process integrated yields and the isotopic ratios. We find only ten ratios that agree with their solar values, all the others differ by at least a factor of three from the solar values in all the considered sets of models. The γ -process within C–O shell mergers mostly influences the isotopic ratios that involve intermediate and heavy proton-rich isotopes with A  > 100. Conclusions. We conclude that there are large discrepancies both among the different data sets and between the model predictions and the solar abundance distribution. More calculations are needed; particularly updating the nuclear network, because the majority of the models considered in this work do not use the latest reaction rates for the γ -process nucleosynthesis. Moreover, the role of C–O shell mergers requires further investigation. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT The abundances of neutron (n)-capture elements in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP)-r/s stars agree with predictions of intermediate n-density nucleosynthesis, at Nn ∼ 1013–1015 cm−3, in rapidly accreting white dwarfs (RAWDs). We have performed Monte Carlo simulations of this intermediate-process (i-process) nucleosynthesis to determine the impact of (n,γ) reaction rate uncertainties of 164 unstable isotopes, from 131I to 189Hf, on the predicted abundances of 18 elements from Ba to W. The impact study is based on two representative one-zone models with constant values of Nn = 3.16 × 1014 and 3.16 × 1013 cm−3 and on a multizone model based on a realistic stellar evolution simulation of He-shell convection entraining H in a RAWD model with [Fe/H] = −2.6. For each of the selected elements, we have identified up to two (n,γ) reactions having the strongest correlations between their rate variations constrained by Hauser–Feshbach computations and the predicted abundances, with the Pearson product–moment correlation coefficients |rP| > 0.15. We find that the discrepancies between the predicted and observed abundances of Ba and Pr in the CEMP-i star CS 31062−050 are significantly diminished if the rate of 137Cs(n,γ)138Cs is reduced and the rates of 141Ba(n,γ)142Ba or 141La(n,γ)142La increased. The uncertainties of temperature-dependent β-decay rates of the same unstable isotopes have a negligible effect on the predicted abundances. One-zone Monte Carlo simulations can be used instead of computationally time-consuming multizone Monte Carlo simulations in reaction rate uncertainty studies if they use comparable values of Nn. We discuss the key challenges that RAWD simulations of i process for CEMP-i stars meet by contrasting them with recently published low-Z asymptotic giant branch (AGB) i process. 
    more » « less