Oncolytic virus therapy is a cancer treatment modality that has the potential to improve outcomes for patients with currently incurable malignancies. Although intravascular delivery of therapeutic viruses provides access to disseminated tumors, this delivery route exposes the virus to opsonizing and inactivating factors in the blood, which limit the effective therapeutic virus dose and contribute to activation of systemic toxicities. When human species C adenovirus HAdv-C5 is delivered intravenously, natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and coagulation factor X rapidly opsonize HAdv-C5, leading to virus sequestration in tissue macrophages and promoting infection of liver cells, triggering hepatotoxicity. Here, we showed that natural IgM antibody binds to the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the main HAdv-C5 capsid protein hexon. Using compound targeted mutagenesis of hexon HVR1 loop and other functional sites that mediate virus-host interactions, we engineered and obtained a high-resolution cryo–electron microscopy structure of an adenovirus vector, Ad5-3M, which resisted inactivation by blood factors, avoided sequestration in liver macrophages, and failed to trigger hepatotoxicity after intravenous delivery. Systemic delivery of Ad5-3M to mice with localized or disseminated lung cancer led to viral replication in tumor cells, suppression of tumor growth, and prolonged survival. Thus, compound targeted mutagenesis of functional sites inmore »
Colorectal cancer and other cancers often metastasize to the liver in later stages of the disease, contributing significantly to patient death. While the biomechanical properties of the liver parenchyma (normal liver tissue) are known to affect tumor cell behavior in primary and metastatic tumors, the role of these properties in driving or inhibiting metastatic inception remains poorly understood, as are the longer-term multicellular dynamics. This study adopts a multi-model approach to study the dynamics of tumor-parenchyma biomechanical interactions during metastatic seeding and growth. We employ a detailed poroviscoelastic model of a liver lobule to study how micrometastases disrupt flow and pressure on short time scales. Results from short-time simulations in detailed single hepatic lobules motivate constitutive relations and biological hypotheses for a minimal agent-based model of metastatic growth in centimeter-scale tissue over months-long time scales. After a parameter space investigation, we find that the balance of basic tumor-parenchyma biomechanical interactions on shorter time scales (adhesion, repulsion, and elastic tissue deformation over minutes) and longer time scales (plastic tissue relaxation over hours) can explain a broad range of behaviors of micrometastases, without the need for complex molecular-scale signaling. These interactions may arrest the growth of micrometastases in a dormant state more »
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