skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Title: Identification of an integrated stress and growth response signaling switch that directs vertebrate intestinal regeneration
Abstract Background

Snakes exhibit extreme intestinal regeneration following months-long fasts that involves unparalleled increases in metabolism, function, and tissue growth, but the specific molecular control of this process is unknown. Understanding the mechanisms that coordinate these regenerative phenotypes provides valuable opportunities to understand critical pathways that may control vertebrate regeneration and novel perspectives on vertebrate regenerative capacities.


Here, we integrate a comprehensive set of phenotypic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and phosphoproteomic data from boa constrictors to identify the mechanisms that orchestrate shifts in metabolism, nutrient uptake, and cellular stress to direct phases of the regenerative response. We identify specific temporal patterns of metabolic, stress response, and growth pathway activation that direct regeneration and provide evidence for multiple key central regulatory molecules kinases that integrate these signals, including major conserved pathways like mTOR signaling and the unfolded protein response.


Collectively, our results identify a novel switch-like role of stress responses in intestinal regeneration that forms a primary regulatory hub facilitating organ regeneration and could point to potential pathways to understand regenerative capacity in vertebrates.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
1655735 1655571 1656138 1906188
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Springer Science + Business Media
Date Published:
Journal Name:
BMC Genomics
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract Purpose of Review

    Interfacial tissue exists throughout the body at cartilage-to-bone (osteochondral interface) and tendon-to-bone (enthesis) interfaces. Healing of interfacial tissues is a current challenge in regenerative approaches because the interface plays a critical role in stabilizing and distributing the mechanical stress between soft tissues (e.g., cartilage and tendon) and bone. The purpose of this review is to identify new directions in the field of interfacial tissue development and physiology that can guide future regenerative strategies for improving post-injury healing.

    Recent Findings

    Cues from interfacial tissue development may guide regeneration including biological cues such as cell phenotype and growth factor signaling; structural cues such as extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, ECM, and cell alignment; and mechanical cues such as compression, tension, shear, and the stiffness of the cellular microenvironment.


    In this review, we explore new discoveries in the field of interfacial biology related to ECM remodeling, cellular metabolism, and fate. Based on emergent findings across multiple disciplines, we lay out a framework for future innovations in the design of engineered strategies for interface regeneration. Many of the key mechanisms essential for interfacial tissue development and adaptation have high potential for improving outcomes in the clinic.

    more » « less
  2. ABSTRACT Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) are critical for dynamic transcriptional responses to environmental stress. However, the mechanisms by which GRN regulation adjusts physiology to enable stress survival remain unclear. Here we investigate the functions of transcription factors (TFs) within the global GRN of the stress-tolerant archaeal microorganism Halobacterium salinarum . We measured growth phenotypes of a panel of TF deletion mutants in high temporal resolution under heat shock, oxidative stress, and low-salinity conditions. To quantitate the noncanonical functional forms of the growth trajectories observed for these mutants, we developed a novel modeling framework based on Gaussian process regression and functional analysis of variance (FANOVA). We employ unique statistical tests to determine the significance of differential growth relative to the growth of the control strain. This analysis recapitulated known TF functions, revealed novel functions, and identified surprising secondary functions for characterized TFs. Strikingly, we observed that the majority of the TFs studied were required for growth under multiple stress conditions, pinpointing regulatory connections between the conditions tested. Correlations between quantitative phenotype trajectories of mutants are predictive of TF-TF connections within the GRN. These phenotypes are strongly concordant with predictions from statistical GRN models inferred from gene expression data alone. With genome-wide and targeted data sets, we provide detailed functional validation of novel TFs required for extreme oxidative stress and heat shock survival. Together, results presented in this study suggest that many TFs function under multiple conditions, thereby revealing high interconnectivity within the GRN and identifying the specific TFs required for communication between networks responding to disparate stressors. IMPORTANCE To ensure survival in the face of stress, microorganisms employ inducible damage repair pathways regulated by extensive and complex gene networks. Many archaea, microorganisms of the third domain of life, persist under extremes of temperature, salinity, and pH and under other conditions. In order to understand the cause-effect relationships between the dynamic function of the stress network and ultimate physiological consequences, this study characterized the physiological role of nearly one-third of all regulatory proteins known as transcription factors (TFs) in an archaeal organism. Using a unique quantitative phenotyping approach, we discovered functions for many novel TFs and revealed important secondary functions for known TFs. Surprisingly, many TFs are required for resisting multiple stressors, suggesting cross-regulation of stress responses. Through extensive validation experiments, we map the physiological roles of these novel TFs in stress response back to their position in the regulatory network wiring. This study advances understanding of the mechanisms underlying how microorganisms resist extreme stress. Given the generality of the methods employed, we expect that this study will enable future studies on how regulatory networks adjust cellular physiology in a diversity of organisms. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Common rust, caused byPuccinia sorghi, is a widespread and destructive disease of maize. TheRp1‐Dgene confers resistance to theP. sorghiIN2 isolate, mediating a hypersensitive cell death response (HR). To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and metabolites associated with the compatible (susceptible) interaction and withRp1‐D‐mediated resistance in maize, we performed transcriptomics and targeted metabolome analyses ofP. sorghiIN2‐infected leaves from the near‐isogenic lines H95 and H95:Rp1‐D, which differed for the presence ofRp1‐D. We observed up‐regulation of genes involved in the defence response and secondary metabolism, including the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and terpenoid pathways. Metabolome analyses confirmed that intermediates from several transcriptionally up‐regulated pathways accumulated during the defence response. We identified a common response in H95:Rp1‐D and H95 with an additional H95:Rp1‐D‐specific resistance response observed at early time points at both transcriptional and metabolic levels. To better understand the mechanisms underlyingRp1‐D‐mediated resistance, we inferred gene regulatory networks occurring in response toP. sorghiinfection. A number of transcription factors including WRKY53, BHLH124, NKD1, BZIP84, and MYB100 were identified as potentially important signalling hubs in the resistance‐specific response. Overall, this study provides a novel and multifaceted understanding of the maize susceptible and resistance‐specific responses toP. sorghi.

    more » « less
  4. Burbank, Lindsey Price (Ed.)

    Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a versatile, contact-dependent contractile nano-weapon in Gram-negative bacteria that fires proteinaceous effector molecules directly into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells aiding in manipulation of the host and killing of competitors in complex niches. In plant pathogenic xanthomonads, T6SS has been demonstrated to play these diverse roles in individual pathosystems. However, the molecular network underlying the regulation of T6SS is still elusive inXanthomonasspp. To bridge this knowledge gap, we conducted anin vitrotranscriptome screen using plant apoplast mimicking minimal medium, XVM2 medium, to decipher the effect oftssMdeletion, a core gene belonging to T6SS-cluster i3*, on the regulation of gene expression inXanthomonas perforansstrain AL65. Transcriptomic data revealed that a total of 277 and 525 genes were upregulated, while 307 and 392 genes were downregulated in the mutant strain after 8 and 16 hours of growth in XVM2 medium. The transcript abundance of several genes associated with flagellum and pilus biogenesis as well as type III secretion system was downregulated in the mutant strain. Deletion oftssMof cluster-i3* resulted in upregulation of several T6SS genes belonging to cluster-i3*** and genes involved in biofilm and cell wall biogenesis. Similarly, transcription regulators likerpoN, Pho regulon,rpoE, andcsrAwere identified to be upregulated in the mutant strain. Our results suggest that T6SS modulates the expression of global regulators likecsrA,rpoN, andphoregulons, triggering a signaling cascade, and co-ordinates the expression of suite of virulence factors, stress response genes, and metabolic genes.


    T6SS has received attention due to its significance in mediating interorganismal competition through contact-dependent release of effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Reverse-genetic studies have indicated the role of T6SS in virulence in a variety of plant pathogenic bacteria, including the one studied here,Xanthomonas. However, it is not clear whether such effect on virulence is merely due to a shift in the microbiome-mediated protection or if T6SS is involved in a complex virulence regulatory network. In this study, we conducted in vitro transcriptome profiling in minimal medium to decipher the signaling pathways regulated by tssM-i3* inX. perforansAL65. We show that TssM-i3* regulates the expression of a suite of genes associated with virulence and metabolism either directly or indirectly by altering the transcription of several regulators. These findings further expand our knowledge on the intricate molecular circuits regulated by T6SS in phytopathogenic bacteria.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract Background

    The sugarcane aphid (SCA;Melanaphis sacchari) has emerged as a key pest on sorghum in the United States that feeds from the phloem tissue, drains nutrients, and inflicts physical damage to plants. Previously, it has been shown that SCA reproduction was low and high on sorghum SC265 and SC1345 plants, respectively, compared to RTx430, an elite sorghum male parental line (reference line). In this study, we focused on identifying the defense-related genes that confer resistance to SCA at early and late time points in sorghum plants with varied levels of SCA resistance.


    We used RNA-sequencing approach to identify the global transcriptomic responses to aphid infestation on RTx430, SC265, and SC1345 plants at early time points 6, 24, and 48 h post infestation (hpi) and after extended period of SCA feeding for 7 days. Aphid feeding on the SCA-resistant line upregulated the expression of 3827 and 2076 genes at early and late time points, respectively, which was relatively higher compared to RTx430 and SC1345 plants. Co-expression network analysis revealed that aphid infestation modulates sorghum defenses by regulating genes corresponding to phenylpropanoid metabolic pathways, secondary metabolic process, oxidoreductase activity, phytohormones, sugar metabolism and cell wall-related genes. There were 187 genes that were highly expressed during the early time of aphid infestation in the SCA-resistant line, including genes encoding leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins, ethylene response factors, cell wall-related, pathogenesis-related proteins, and disease resistance-responsive dirigent-like proteins. At 7 days post infestation (dpi), 173 genes had elevated expression levels in the SCA-resistant line and were involved in sucrose metabolism, callose formation, phospholipid metabolism, and proteinase inhibitors.


    In summary, our results indicate that the SCA-resistant line is better adapted to activate early defense signaling mechanisms in response to SCA infestation because of the rapid activation of the defense mechanisms by regulating genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis pathway, oxidoreductase activity, biosynthesis of phytohormones, and cell wall composition. This study offers further insights to better understand sorghum defenses against aphid herbivory.

    more » « less