skip to main content

Title: Energy Levels of Singly Ionized and Neutral Hafnium

Improved energy levels for singly ionized and neutral hafnium of both even and odd parity are determined from Fourier transform spectrometer data using a least-squares optimization procedure. Data from interferometric spectrometers provide much tighter control of systematic uncertainties of line position measurements than can be achieved using dispersive spectrometers. The strong optical and near-UV lines connecting these levels are most likely to be used in the determination of isotopic abundance patterns. Comparisons of new results to published ones strongly suggest that our energy levels have systematic uncertainties in the mK (1 mK = 0.001 cm−1) range or smaller, and that widely used tables of energy levels for ionized Hf have systematic errors of approximately 70 mK.

; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 27
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are more precise standardizable candles when measured in the near-infrared (NIR) than in the optical. With this motivation, from 2012 to 2017 we embarked on the RAISIN program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain rest-frame NIR light curves for a cosmologically distant sample of 37 SNe Ia (0.2 ≲z≲ 0.6) discovered by Pan-STARRS and the Dark Energy Survey. By comparing higher-zHST data with 42 SNe Ia atz< 0.1 observed in the NIR by the Carnegie Supernova Project, we construct a Hubble diagram from NIR observations (with only time of maximum light and some selection cuts from optical photometry) to pursue a unique avenue to constrain the dark energy equation-of-state parameter,w. We analyze the dependence of the full set of Hubble residuals on the SN Ia host galaxy mass and find Hubble residual steps of size ∼0.06-0.1 mag with 1.5σ−2.5σsignificance depending on the method and step location used. Combining our NIR sample with cosmic microwave background constraints, we find 1 +w= −0.17 ± 0.12 (statistical + systematic errors). The largest systematic errors are the redshift-dependent SN selection biases and the properties of the NIR mass step. We also use these data to measureH0=more »75.9 ± 2.2 km s−1Mpc−1from stars with geometric distance calibration in the hosts of eight SNe Ia observed in the NIR versusH0= 71.2 ± 3.8 km s−1Mpc−1using an inverse distance ladder approach tied to Planck. Using optical data, we find 1 +w= −0.10 ± 0.09, and with optical and NIR data combined, we find 1 +w= −0.06 ± 0.07; these shifts of up to ∼0.11 inwcould point to inconsistency in the optical versus NIR SN models. There will be many opportunities to improve this NIR measurement and better understand systematic uncertainties through larger low-zsamples, new light-curve models, calibration improvements, and eventually by building high-zsamples from the Roman Space Telescope.

    « less
  2. Abstract

    We present a multi-instrument study of the two precursor brightenings prior to the M6.5 flare (SOL2015-06-22T18:23) in the NOAA Active Region 12371, with a focus on the temperature (T), electron number density (n), and emission measure (EM). The data used in this study were obtained from four instruments with a variety of wavelengths, i.e., the Solar Dynamics Observatory’s Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), in six extreme ultraviolet (EUV) passbands; the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) in microwave (MW); the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) in hard X-rays (HXR); and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) in soft X-rays (SXR). We compare the temporal variations ofT,n, and EM derived from the different data sets. Here are the key results. (1) GOES SXR and AIA EUV have almost identical EM variations (1.5–3 × 1048cm−3) and very similarTvariations, from 8 to 15 million Kelvin (MK). (2) Listed from highest to lowest, EOVSA MW provides the highest temperature variations (15–60 MK), followed by RHESSI HXR (10–24 MK), then GOES SXR and AIA EUV (8–15 MK). (3) The EM variation from the RHESSI HXR measurements is always less than the values from AIA EUV and GOES SXR by at most 20more »times. The number density variation from EOVSA MW is greater than the value from AIA EUV by at most 100 times. The results quantitatively describe the differences in the thermal parameters at the precursor phase, as measured by different instruments operating at different wavelength regimes and for different emission mechanisms.

    « less
  3. Abstract

    We present the power spectrum methodology used for the first-season COMAP analysis, and assess the quality of the current data set. The main results are derived through the Feed–Feed Pseudo-Cross-Spectrum (FPXS) method, which is a robust estimator with respect to both noise modeling errors and experimental systematics. We use effective transfer functions to take into account the effects of instrumental beam smoothing and various filter operations applied during the low-level data processing. The power spectra estimated in this way have allowed us to identify a systematic error associated with one of our two scanning strategies, believed to be due to residual ground or atmospheric contamination. We omit these data from our analysis and no longer use this scanning technique for observations. We present the power spectra from our first season of observing, and demonstrate that the uncertainties are integrating as expected for uncorrelated noise, with any residual systematics suppressed to a level below the noise. Using the FPXS method, and combining data on scalesk= 0.051–0.62 Mpc−1, we estimatePCO(k) = −2. 7 ± 1.7 × 104μK2Mpc3, the first direct 3D constraint on the clustering component of the CO(1–0) power spectrum in the literature.

  4. Abstract

    We present the first estimate of the Galactic nova rate based on optical transient surveys covering the entire sky. Using data from the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) and Gaia—the only two all-sky surveys to report classical nova candidates—we find 39 confirmed Galactic novae and 7 additional unconfirmed candidates discovered from 2019 to 2021, yielding a nova discovery rate of ≈14 yr−1. Using accurate Galactic stellar mass models and three-dimensional dust maps and incorporating realistic nova light curves, we have built a sophisticated Galactic nova model to estimate the fraction of Galactic novae discovered by these surveys over this time period. The observing capabilities of each survey are distinct: the high cadence of ASAS-SN makes it sensitive to fast novae, while the broad observing filter and high spatial resolution of Gaia make it more sensitive to highly reddened novae across the entire Galactic plane and bulge. Despite these differences, we find that ASAS-SN and Gaia give consistent Galactic nova rates, with a final joint nova rate of 26 ± 5 yr−1. This inferred nova rate is substantially lower than found by many other recent studies. Critically assessing the systematic uncertainties in the Galactic nova rate, we argue thatmore »the role of faint, fast-fading novae has likely been overestimated, but that subtle details in the operation of transient alert pipelines can have large, sometimes unappreciated effects on transient recovery efficiency. Our predicted nova rate can be directly tested with forthcoming red/near-infrared transient surveys in the southern hemisphere.

    « less
  5. Abstract

    A sensitive (1σrms ≤ 3 mK; 2 MHz resolution) 1 mm spectral survey (214.5–285.5 GHz) of the envelope of the oxygen-rich supergiant star NML Cygni (NML Cyg) has been conducted using the 10 m Submillimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory. These data represent the first spectral line survey of NML Cyg and are complementary to a previous 1 mm survey of the envelope of a similar hypergiant, VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). The complete NML Cyg data set is presented here. In the survey, 104 emission lines were observed, arising from 17 different molecules and 4 unidentified features. Many of the observed features have complex line profiles, arising from asymmetric outflows characteristic of hypergiant stars. While most of the lines in the survey arise from SiO, SO, SO2, and SiS, CO had the strongest emission. Five other C-bearing species are identified in the survey (HCN, CN, HCO+, CS, and HNC), demonstrating an active carbon chemistry despite the O-rich environment. Moreover, NS was observed, but not NO, although favorable transitions of both molecules lie in the surveyed region. Sulfur chemistry appears to be prominent in NML Cyg and plays an important role in the collimated outflows. The refractory speciesmore »observed, NaCl and AlO, have narrow emission lines, indicating that these molecules do not reach the terminal expansion velocity. NaCl and AlO likely condense into dust grains at r < 50R*. From NaCl, the chlorine isotope ratio was determined to be35Cl/37Cl = 3.85 ± 0.30.

    « less