We use the Very Long Baseline Array to conduct high precision astrometry of a sample of 33 compact, flat spectrum, variable radio sources in the direction of the Galactic plane (Becker et al. 2010). Although Becker et al. (2010) ruled out a few potential scenarios for the origin of the radio emission, the study could not rule out that these sources were black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs). Most known BHXBs are first detected by X-ray or optical emission when they go into an outburst, leaving the larger quiescent BHXB population undiscovered. In this paper, we attempt to identify any Galactic sources amongst the Becker et al. (2010) sample by measuring their proper motions as a first step to finding quiescent BHXB candidates. Amongst the 33 targets, we could measure the proper motion of six sources. We find that G32.7193-0.6477 is a Galactic source and are able to constrain the parallax of this source with a 3σ significance. We found three strong Galactic candidates, G32.5898-0.4468, G29.1075-0.1546, and G31.1494-0.1727, based purely on their proper motions, and suggest that G29.1075-0.1546 is also likely Galactic. We detected two resolved targets for multiple epochs (G30.1038+0.3984 and G29.7161-0.3178). We find six targets are only detected in one epochmore »
In the time domain, the radio sky in particular along the Galactic plane direction may vary significantly because of various energetic activities associated with stars, stellar, and supermassive black holes. Multi-epoch Very Large Array surveys of the Galactic plane at 5.0 GHz enabled the finding of a catalogue of 39 variable radio sources in the flux density range 1–70 mJy. To probe their radio structures and spectra, we observed 17 sources with the very-long-baseline interferometric (VLBI) imaging technique and collected additional multifrequency data from the literature. We detected all of the sources at 5 GHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, but only G23.6644–0.0372 with the European VLBI Network (EVN). Together with its decadal variability and multifrequency radio spectrum, we interpret it as an extragalactic peaked-spectrum source with a size of ≲10 pc. The remaining sources were resolved out by the long baselines of the EVN because of either strong scatter broadening at the Galactic latitude < 1° or intrinsically very extended structures on centi-arcsec scales. According to their spectral and structural properties, we find that the sample has a diverse nature. We notice two young H ii regions and spot a radio star and a candidate planetary nebula. The rest of the sources more »
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- p. 280-294
- Oxford University Press
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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