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Title: Conical intersection and coherent vibrational dynamics in alkyl iodides captured by attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

The photodissociation dynamics of alkyl iodides along the C–I bond are captured by attosecond extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy employing resonant ∼20 fs UV pump pulses. The methodology of previous experiments on CH3I [Chang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 154, 234301 (2021)] is extended to the investigation of a C–I bond-breaking reaction in the dissociative A-band of C2H5I, i-C3H7I, and t-C4H9I. Probing iodine 4 d core-to-valence transitions in the XUV enables one to map wave packet bifurcation at a conical intersection in the A-band as well as coherent vibrations in the ground state of the parent molecules. Analysis of spectroscopic bifurcation signatures yields conical intersection crossing times of 15 ± 4 fs for CH3I, 14 ± 5 fs for C2H5I, and 24 ± 4 fs for i-C3H7I and t-C4H9I, respectively. Observations of coherent vibrations, resulting from a projection of A-band structural dynamics onto the ground state by resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering, indirectly reveal multimode C–I stretch and CCI bend vibrations in the A-bands of C2H5I, i-C3H7I, and t-C4H9I.

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Award ID(s):
1951317 1660417
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
The Journal of Chemical Physics
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 114304
American Institute of Physics
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    Conical intersections between electronic states often dictate the chemistry of photoexcited molecules. Recently developed sources of ultrashort extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses tuned to element-specific transitions in molecules allow for the unambiguous detection of electronic state-switching at a conical intersection. Here, the fragmentation of photoexcitediso-propyl iodide andtert-butyl iodide molecules (i-C3H7I andt-C4H9I) through a conical intersection between3Q0/1Q1spin–orbit states is revealed by ultrafast XUV transient absorption measuring iodine 4dcore-to-valence transitions. The electronic state-sensitivity of the technique allows for a complete mapping of molecular dissociation from photoexcitation to photoproducts. In both molecules, the sub-100 fs transfer of a photoexcited wave packet from the3Q0state into the1Q1state at the conical intersection is captured. The results show how differences in the electronic state-switching of the wave packet ini-C3H7I andt-C4H9I directly lead to differences in the photoproduct branching ratio of the two systems.

  2. Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have come full-circle in the past 10 years after their demonstration in the early 1990s as the fastest room-temperature semiconductor oscillator, displaying experimental results up to 712 GHz and fmax values exceeding 1.0 THz [1]. Now the RTD is once again the preeminent electronic oscillator above 1.0 THz and is being implemented as a coherent source [2] and a self-oscillating mixer [3], amongst other applications. This paper concerns RTD electroluminescence – an effect that has been studied very little in the past 30+ years of RTD development, and not at room temperature. We present experiments and modeling of an n-type In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs double-barrier RTD operating as a cross-gap light emitter at ~300K. The MBE-growth stack is shown in Fig. 1(a). A 15-μm-diam-mesa device was defined by standard planar processing including a top annular ohmic contact with a 5-μm-diam pinhole in the center to couple out enough of the internal emission for accurate free-space power measurements [4]. The emission spectra have the behavior displayed in Fig. 1(b), parameterized by bias voltage (VB). The long wavelength emission edge is at  = 1684 nm - close to the In0.53Ga0.47As bandgap energy of Ug ≈ 0.75 eV at 300 K.more »The spectral peaks for VB = 2.8 and 3.0 V both occur around  = 1550 nm (h = 0.75 eV), so blue-shifted relative to the peak of the “ideal”, bulk InGaAs emission spectrum shown in Fig. 1(b) [5]. These results are consistent with the model displayed in Fig. 1(c), whereby the broad emission peak is attributed to the radiative recombination between electrons accumulated on the emitter side, and holes generated on the emitter side by interband tunneling with current density Jinter. The blue-shifted main peak is attributed to the quantum-size effect on the emitter side, which creates a radiative recombination rate RN,2 comparable to the band-edge cross-gap rate RN,1. Further support for this model is provided by the shorter wavelength and weaker emission peak shown in Fig. 1(b) around = 1148 nm. Our quantum mechanical calculations attribute this to radiative recombination RR,3 in the RTD quantum well between the electron ground-state level E1,e, and the hole level E1,h. To further test the model and estimate quantum efficiencies, we conducted optical power measurements using a large-area Ge photodiode located ≈3 mm away from the RTD pinhole, and having spectral response between 800 and 1800 nm with a peak responsivity of ≈0.85 A/W at  =1550 nm. Simultaneous I-V and L-V plots were obtained and are plotted in Fig. 2(a) with positive bias on the top contact (emitter on the bottom). The I-V curve displays a pronounced NDR region having a current peak-to-valley current ratio of 10.7 (typical for In0.53Ga0.47As RTDs). The external quantum efficiency (EQE) was calculated from EQE = e∙IP/(∙IE∙h) where IP is the photodiode dc current and IE the RTD current. The plot of EQE is shown in Fig. 2(b) where we see a very rapid rise with VB, but a maximum value (at VB= 3.0 V) of only ≈2×10-5. To extract the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), we use the expression EQE= c ∙i ∙r ≡ c∙IQE where ci, and r are the optical-coupling, electrical-injection, and radiative recombination efficiencies, respectively [6]. Our separate optical calculations yield c≈3.4×10-4 (limited primarily by the small pinhole) from which we obtain the curve of IQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) (right-hand scale). The maximum value of IQE (again at VB = 3.0 V) is 6.0%. From the implicit definition of IQE in terms of i and r given above, and the fact that the recombination efficiency in In0.53Ga0.47As is likely limited by Auger scattering, this result for IQE suggests that i might be significantly high. To estimate i, we have used the experimental total current of Fig. 2(a), the Kane two-band model of interband tunneling [7] computed in conjunction with a solution to Poisson’s equation across the entire structure, and a rate-equation model of Auger recombination on the emitter side [6] assuming a free-electron density of 2×1018 cm3. We focus on the high-bias regime above VB = 2.5 V of Fig. 2(a) where most of the interband tunneling should occur in the depletion region on the collector side [Jinter,2 in Fig. 1(c)]. And because of the high-quality of the InGaAs/AlAs heterostructure (very few traps or deep levels), most of the holes should reach the emitter side by some combination of drift, diffusion, and tunneling through the valence-band double barriers (Type-I offset) between InGaAs and AlAs. The computed interband current density Jinter is shown in Fig. 3(a) along with the total current density Jtot. At the maximum Jinter (at VB=3.0 V) of 7.4×102 A/cm2, we get i = Jinter/Jtot = 0.18, which is surprisingly high considering there is no p-type doping in the device. When combined with the Auger-limited r of 0.41 and c ≈ 3.4×10-4, we find a model value of IQE = 7.4% in good agreement with experiment. This leads to the model values for EQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) - also in good agreement with experiment. Finally, we address the high Jinter and consider a possible universal nature of the light-emission mechanism. Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018).« less
  3. By varying the halogen-bond-donor molecule, 11 new halogen-bonding cocrystals involving thiourea or 1,3-dimethylthiourea were obtained, namely, 1,3-dimethylthiourea–1,2-diiodo-3,4,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene (1/1), C 6 F 4 I 2 ·C 3 H 8 N 2 S, 1 , thiourea–1,3-diiodo-2,4,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene (1/1), C 6 F 4 I 2 ·CH 4 N 2 S, 2 , 1,3-dimethylthiourea–1,3-diiodo-2,4,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene (1/1), C 6 F 4 I 2 ·C 3 H 8 N 2 S, 3 , 1,3-dimethylthiourea–1,3-diiodo-2,4,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene–methanol (1/1/1), C 6 F 4 I 2 ·C 3 H 8 N 2 S·CH 4 O, 4 , 1,3-dimethylthiourea–1,3-diiodo-2,4,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene–ethanol (1/1/1), C 6 F 4 I 2 ·C 3 H 8 N 2 S·C 2 H 6 O, 5 , 1,3-dimethylthiourea–1,4-diiodo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene (1/1), C 6 F 4 I 2 ·C 3 H 8 N 2 S, 6 , 1,3-dimethylthiourea–1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene (1/1), C 6 F 3 I 3 ·C 3 H 8 N 2 S, 7 , 1,3-dimethylthiourea–1,1,2,2-tetraiodoethene (1/1), C 6 H 16 N 4 S 2 ·C 2 I 4 , 8 , [(dimethylamino)methylidene](1,2,2-triiodoethenyl)sulfonium iodide–1,1,2,2-tetraiodoethene–acetone (1/1/1), C 5 H 8 I 3 N 2 S + ·I − ·C 3 H 6 O·C 2 I 4 , 9 , 2-amino-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-3-ium iodide–1,1,2,2-tetraiodoethene (2/3), 2C 4 H 7 N 2 S + ·2I − ·3C 2 I 4 ,more »10 , and 4,4-dimethyl-4 H -1,3,5-thiadiazine-3,5-diium diiodide–1,1,2,2-tetraiodoethene (2/3), 2C 5 H 12 N 4 S 2+ ·4I − ·3C 2 I 4 , 11 . When utilizing the common halogen-bond-donor molecules 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-diiodotetrafluorobenzene, as well as 1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene, bifurcated I...S...I interactions were observed, resulting in the formation of isolated rings, chains, and sheets. Tetraiodoethylene (TIE) provided I...S...I cocrystals as well, but further yielded a sulfonium-containing product through the reaction of the S atom with TIE. This particular sulfonium motif is the first of its kind to be structurally characterized, and is stabilized in the solid state through a three-dimensional I...I halogen-bonding network. Thiourea reacted with acetone in the presence of TIE to provide two novel heterocyclic products, again stabilized in the solid state through I...I halogen bonding.« less
  4. First, high-resolution sub-Doppler infrared spectroscopic results for cyclopentyl radical (C 5 H 9 ) are reported on the α-CH stretch fundamental with suppression of spectral congestion achieved by adiabatic cooling to T rot ≈ 19(4) K in a slit jet expansion. Surprisingly, cyclopentyl radical exhibits a rotationally assignable infrared spectrum, despite 3N − 6 = 36 vibrational modes and an upper vibrational state density (ρ ≈ 40–90 #/cm −1 ) in the critical regime (ρ ≈ 100 #/cm −1 ) necessary for onset of intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) dynamics. Such high-resolution data for cyclopentyl radical permit detailed fits to a rigid-rotor asymmetric top Hamiltonian, initial structural information for ground and vibrationally excited states, and opportunities for detailed comparison with theoretical predictions. Specifically, high level ab initio calculations at the coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples (CCSD(T))/ANO0, 1 level are used to calculate an out-of-plane bending potential, which reveals a C 2 symmetry double minimum 1D energy surface over a C 2v transition state. The inversion barrier [V barrier ≈ 3.7(1) kcal/mol] is much larger than the effective moment of inertia for out-of-plane bending, resulting in localization of the cyclopentyl wavefunction near its C 2 symmetry equilibrium geometry and tunneling splittingsmore »for the ground state too small (<1 MHz) to be resolved under sub-Doppler slit jet conditions. The persistence of fully resolved high-resolution infrared spectroscopy for such large cyclic polyatomic radicals at high vibrational state densities suggests a “deceleration” of IVR for a cycloalkane ring topology, much as low frequency torsion/methyl rotation degrees of freedom have demonstrated a corresponding “acceleration” of IVR processes in linear hydrocarbons.« less
  5. UV-Vis transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy is used to carry out a systematic investigation of the ultrafast CC double photoisomerization dynamics and quantum yield of each isomer of a set of six chromophores based on the same retinal-inspired, indanylidene pyrrolinium (IP) molecular framework. All compounds undergo a sub-picosecond photoisomerization, and can be categorized within two photoisomerization scenarios. Scenario I corresponds to compounds which display the signatures of a vibrationally coherent reactive motion through the conical intersection, with different degrees of vibrational coherence. Qualitatively distinct TA signatures are observed for other compounds which are therefore proposed to obey scenario II, referring to an intermediate regime between scenario I and a thermally-equilibrated, fully stochastic photoreaction. Remarkably, the photoisomerization scenario is observed to correlate with the computed distortion from planarity of the ground state equilibrium geometry, reflecting the torsional strain that would be released after photoexcitation. The most planar compounds – i.e. those having a CC double bond pre-twist of less than 10° – obey scenario II, while compounds obeying scenario I have larger pre-twists. The most pre-twisted compounds (>15°) show pronounced oscillatory signatures of a reaction-induced, low-frequency vibrational wavepacket observed in the S 0 photoproduct and assigned to the torsion mode of themore »reaction coordinate, thus mimicking the vibrationally coherent photoisomerization dynamics of the rhodopsin protein. Importantly, the systematic comparison of all photoisomerization quantum yields does however not reveal any correlation with observables such as excited state life time, vibrational coherence, absorption wavelengths or degree of pre-twisting.« less