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Title: Single-cell Iso-Sequencing enables rapid genome annotation for scRNAseq analysis
Abstract

Single-cell RNA sequencing is a powerful technique that continues to expand across various biological applications. However, incomplete 3′-UTR annotations can impede single-cell analysis resulting in genes that are partially or completely uncounted. Performing single-cell RNA sequencing with incomplete 3′-UTR annotations can hinder the identification of cell identities and gene expression patterns and lead to erroneous biological inferences. We demonstrate that performing single-cell isoform sequencing in tandem with single-cell RNA sequencing can rapidly improve 3′-UTR annotations. Using threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we show that gene models resulting from a minimal embryonic single-cell isoform sequencing dataset retained 26.1% greater single-cell RNA sequencing reads than gene models from Ensembl alone. Furthermore, pooling our single-cell sequencing isoforms with a previously published adult bulk Iso-Seq dataset from stickleback, and merging the annotation with the Ensembl gene models, resulted in a marginal improvement (+0.8%) over the single-cell isoform sequencing only dataset. In addition, isoforms identified by single-cell isoform sequencing included thousands of new splicing variants. The improved gene models obtained using single-cell isoform sequencing led to successful identification of cell types and increased the reads identified of many genes in our single-cell RNA sequencing stickleback dataset. Our work illuminates single-cell isoform sequencing as a more » cost-effective and efficient mechanism to rapidly annotate genomes for single-cell RNA sequencing.

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Authors:
 ;  ;  ;
Award ID(s):
2015301
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10364150
Journal Name:
Genetics
Volume:
220
Issue:
3
ISSN:
1943-2631
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  2. Abstract Background

    The eukaryotic genome is capable of producing multiple isoforms from a gene by alternative polyadenylation (APA) during pre-mRNA processing. APA in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mRNA produces transcripts with shorter or longer 3′-UTR. Often, 3′-UTR serves as a binding platform for microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, which affect the fate of the mRNA transcript. Thus, 3′-UTR APA is known to modulate translation and provides a mean to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Current bioinformatics pipelines have limited capability in profiling 3′-UTR APA events due to incomplete annotations and a low-resolution analyzing power: widely available bioinformatics pipelines do not reference actionable polyadenylation (cleavage) sites but simulate 3′-UTR APA only using RNA-seq read coverage, causing false positive identifications. To overcome these limitations, we developed APA-Scan, a robust program that identifies 3′-UTR APA events and visualizes the RNA-seq short-read coverage with gene annotations.

    Methods

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    Result

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    Availability and implementation

    The software is available at https://github.com/hao-peng/DEIsoM

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

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