We report the results of the “UM‐TBM” and “Zheng” groups in CASP15 for protein monomer and complex structure prediction. These prediction sets were obtained using the D‐I‐TASSER and DMFold‐Multimer algorithms, respectively. For monomer structure prediction, D‐I‐TASSER introduced four new features during CASP15: (i) a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) generation protocol that combines multi‐source MSA searching and a structural modeling‐based MSA ranker; (ii) attention‐network based spatial restraints; (iii) a multi‐domain module containing domain partition and arrangement for domain‐level templates and spatial restraints; (iv) an optimized I‐TASSER‐based folding simulation system for full‐length model creation guided by a combination of deep learning restraints, threading alignments, and knowledge‐based potentials. For 47 free modeling targets in CASP15, the final models predicted by D‐I‐TASSER showed average TM‐score 19% higher than the standard AlphaFold2 program. We thus showed that traditional Monte Carlo‐based folding simulations, when appropriately coupled with deep learning algorithms, can generate models with improved accuracy over end‐to‐end deep learning methods alone. For protein complex structure prediction, DMFold‐Multimer generated models by integrating a new MSA generation algorithm (DeepMSA2) with the end‐to‐end modeling module from AlphaFold2‐Multimer. For the 38 complex targets, DMFold‐Multimer generated models with an average TM‐score of 0.83 and Interface Contact Score of 0.60, both significantly higher than those of competing complex prediction tools. Our analyses on complexes highlighted the critical role played by MSA generating, ranking, and pairing in protein complex structure prediction. We also discuss future room for improvement in the areas of viral protein modeling and complex model ranking.
In this article, we report 3D structure prediction results by two of our best server groups (“Zhang‐Server” and “QUARK”) in CASP14. These two servers were built based on the D‐I‐TASSER and D‐QUARK algorithms, which integrated four newly developed components into the classical protein folding pipelines, I‐TASSER and QUARK, respectively. The new components include: (a) a new multiple sequence alignment (MSA) collection tool, DeepMSA2, which is extended from the DeepMSA program; (b) a contact‐based domain boundary prediction algorithm, FUpred, to detect protein domain boundaries; (c) a residual convolutional neural network‐based method, DeepPotential, to predict multiple spatial restraints by co‐evolutionary features derived from the MSA; and (d) optimized spatial restraint energy potentials to guide the structure assembly simulations. For 37 FM targets, the average TM‐scores of the first models produced by D‐I‐TASSER and D‐QUARK were 96% and 112% higher than those constructed by I‐TASSER and QUARK, respectively. The data analysis indicates noticeable improvements produced by each of the four new components, especially for the newly added spatial restraints from DeepPotential and the well‐tuned force field that combines spatial restraints, threading templates, and generic knowledge‐based potentials. However, challenges still exist in the current pipelines. These include difficulties in modeling multi‐domain proteins due to low accuracy in inter‐domain distance prediction and modeling protein domains from oligomer complexes, as the co‐evolutionary analysis cannot distinguish inter‐chain and intra‐chain distances. Specifically tuning the deep learning‐based predictors for multi‐domain targets and protein complexes may be helpful to address these issues.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- p. 1734-1751
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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