Three Na+sites are defined in the Na+-bound crystal structure of Na+, K+-ATPase. Sites I and II overlap with two K+sites in the K+-bound structure, whereas site III is unique and Na+specific. A glutamine in transmembrane helix M8 (Q925) appears from the crystal structures to coordinate Na+at site III, but does not contribute to K+coordination at sites I and II. Here we address the functional role of Q925 in the various conformational states of Na+, K+-ATPase by examining the mutants Q925A/G/E/N/L/I/Y. We characterized these mutants both enzymatically and electrophysiologically, thereby revealing their Na+and K+binding properties. Remarkably, Q925 substitutions had minor effects on Na+binding from the intracellular side of the membrane – in fact, mutations Q925A and Q925G increased the apparent Na+affinity – but caused dramatic reductions of the binding of K+as well as Na+from the extracellular side of the membrane. These results provide insight into the changes taking place in the Na+-binding sites, when they are transformed from intracellular- to extracellular-facing orientation in relation to the ion translocation process, and demonstrate the interaction between sites III and I and a possible gating function of Q925 in the release of Na+at the extracellular side.
The essential transmembrane Na+ and K+ gradients in animal cells are established by the Na+/K+ pump, a P-type ATPase that exports three Na+ and imports two K+ per ATP hydrolyzed. The mechanism by which the Na+/K+ pump distinguishes between Na+ and K+ at the two membrane sides is poorly understood. Crystal structures identify two sites (sites I and II) that bind Na+ or K+ and a third (site III) specific for Na+. The side chain of a conserved tyrosine at site III of the catalytic α-subunit (Xenopus-α1 Y780) has been proposed to contribute to Na+ binding by cation–π interaction. We substituted Y780 with natural and unnatural amino acids, expressed the mutants in Xenopus oocytes and COS-1 cells, and used electrophysiology and biochemistry to evaluate their function. Substitutions disrupting H-bonds impaired Na+ interaction, while Y780Q strengthened it, likely by H-bond formation. Utilizing the non-sense suppression method previously used to incorporate unnatural derivatives in ion channels, we were able to analyze Na+/K+ pumps with fluorinated tyrosine or phenylalanine derivatives inserted at position 780 to diminish cation–π interaction strength. In line with the results of the analysis of mutants with natural amino acid substitutions, the results with the fluorinated derivatives indicate that Na+–π more »
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of General Physiology
- DOI PREFIX: 10.1085
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Distinct effects of Q925 mutation on intracellular and extracellular Na+ and K+ binding to the Na+, K+-ATPase
Coat Protein Mutations That Alter the Flux of Morphogenetic Intermediates through the ϕX174 Early Assembly PathwayABSTRACT Two scaffolding proteins orchestrate ϕX174 morphogenesis. The internal scaffolding protein B mediates the formation of pentameric assembly intermediates, whereas the external scaffolding protein D organizes 12 of these intermediates into procapsids. Aromatic amino acid side chains mediate most coat-internal scaffolding protein interactions. One residue in the internal scaffolding protein and three in the coat protein constitute the core of the B protein binding cleft. The three coat gene codons were randomized separately to ascertain the chemical requirements of the encoded amino acids and the morphogenetic consequences of mutation. The resulting mutants exhibited a wide range of recessive phenotypes, which could generally be explained within a structural context. Mutants with phenylalanine, tyrosine, and methionine substitutions were phenotypically indistinguishable from the wild type. However, tryptophan substitutions were detrimental at two sites. Charged residues were poorly tolerated, conferring extreme temperature-sensitive and lethal phenotypes. Eighteen lethal and conditional lethal mutants were genetically and biochemically characterized. The primary defect associated with the missense substitutions ranged from inefficient internal scaffolding protein B binding to faulty procapsid elongation reactions mediated by external scaffolding protein D. Elevating B protein concentrations above wild-type levels via exogenous, cloned-gene expression compensated for inefficient B protein binding, as did suppressing mutationsmore »
Unconventional mechanism and selectivity of the Pd-catalyzed C–H bond lactonization in aromatic carboxylic acid
The search for more effective and highly selective C–H bond oxidation of accessible hydrocarbons and biomolecules is a greatly attractive research mission. The elucidating of mechanism and controlling factors will, undoubtedly, help to broaden scope of these synthetic protocols, and enable discovery of more efficient, environmentally benign, and highly practical new C–H oxidation reactions. Here, we reveal the stepwise intramolecular SN2 nucleophilic substitution mechanism with the rate-limiting C–O bond formation step for the Pd(II)-catalyzed C(sp3)–H lactonization in aromatic 2,6-dimethylbenzoic acid. We show that for this reaction, the direct C–O reductive elimination from both Pd(II) and Pd(IV) (oxidized by O2oxidant) intermediates is unfavorable. Critical factors controlling the outcome of this reaction are the presence of the η3-(π-benzylic)–Pd and K+–O(carboxylic) interactions. The controlling factors of the benzylic vs ortho site-selectivity of this reaction are the: (a) difference in the strains of the generated lactone rings; (b) difference in the strengths of the η3-(π-benzylic)–Pd and η2-(π-phenyl)–Pd interactions, and (c) more pronounced electrostatic interaction between the nucleophilic oxygen and K+cation in the ortho-C–H activation transition state. The presented data indicate the utmost importance of base, substrate, and ligand in the selective C(sp3)–H bond lactonization in the presence of C(sp2)–H.
Structural Behavior of C2/m Tremolite to 40 GPa: A High-Pressure Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction StudyThe high-pressure structure and stability of the calcic amphibole tremolite (Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2) was investigated to ~40 GPa at 300 K by single-crystal X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. C2/m symmetry tremolite displays a broader metastability range than previously studied clinoamphiboles, exhibiting no first-order phase transition up to 40 GPa. Axial parameter ratios a/b and a/c, in conjunction with finite strain versus normalized pressure trends, indicate that changes in compressional behavior occur at pressures of ~5 and ~20 GPa. An analysis of the finite strain trends, using third-order Birch-Murnaghan equations of state, resulted in bulk moduli (𝐾) of 72(7), 77(2), and 61(1) GPa for the compressional regimes from 0-5 GPa (regime I), 5-20 GPa (II), and above 20 GPa (III), respectively, and accompanying pressure-derivatives of the bulk moduli (𝐾′) of 8.6(42), 6.0(3), and 10.0(2). The results are consistent with first-principle theoretical calculations of tremolite elasticity. The axial compressibility ratios of tremolite, determined as 𝛽a : 𝛽b : 𝛽c = 2.22:1.0:0.78 (regime I), 2.12:1.0:0.96 (II), and 1.03:1.0:0.75 (III), demonstrate a substantial reduction of the compressional anisotropy of tremolite at high pressures, which is a notable contrast with the increasingly anisotropic compressibility observed in the high-pressure polymorphs of the clinoamphibole grunerite. The shift in compression-regimemore »
In the mammalian glutamate transporters, countertransported intracellular K+ is essential for relocating the glutamate binding site to the extracellular side of the membrane. This K+-dependent process is believed to be rate limiting for the transport cycle. In contrast, extracellular K+ induces glutamate release upon transporter reversal. Here, we analyzed potential K+ binding sites using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and site-directed mutagenesis. Two candidate sites were identified by spontaneous K+ binding in MD simulations, one site (K1 site) overlapping with the Na1 Na+ binding site and the K2 site being localized under hairpin loop 2 (HP2). Mutations to conserved amino acid residues in these sites resulted in several transporters that were defective in K+-induced reverse transport and which bound K+ with reduced apparent affinity compared with the wild-type transporter. However, external K+ interaction was abolished in only one mutant transporter EAAC1D454A in the K1 site. Our results, for the first time, directly demonstrate effects of K1-site mutations on K+ binding, in contrast to previous reports on K+ binding sites based on indirect evidence. We propose that K+ binding to the K1 site is responsible for catalyzing the relocation step, whereas binding to the K2 site may have an as-of-yet unidentified regulatorymore »