This content will become publicly available on April 21, 2023
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Frontiers in Microbiology
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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A novel viral strategy for host factor recruitment: The co-opted proteasomal Rpn11 protein interaction hub in cooperation with subverted actin filaments are targeted to deliver cytosolic host factors for viral replicationWang, Aiming (Ed.)Positive-strand (+)RNA viruses take advantage of the host cells by subverting a long list of host protein factors and transport vesicles and cellular organelles to build membranous viral replication organelles (VROs) that support robust RNA replication. How RNA viruses accomplish major recruitment tasks of a large number of cellular proteins are intensively studied. In case of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a single viral replication protein, named p33, carries out most of the recruitment duties. Yet, it is currently unknown how the viral p33 replication protein, which is membrane associated, is capable of the rapid and efficient recruitment of numerous cytosolic host proteins to facilitate the formation of large VROs. In this paper, we show that, TBSV p33 molecules do not recruit each cytosolic host factor one-by-one into VROs, but p33 targets a cytosolic protein interaction hub, namely Rpn11, which interacts with numerous other cytosolic proteins. The highly conserved Rpn11, called POH1 in humans, is the metalloprotease subunit of the proteasome, which couples deubiquitination and degradation of proteasome substrates. However, TBSV takes advantage of a noncanonical function of Rpn11 by exploiting Rpn11’s interaction with highly abundant cytosolic proteins and the actin network. We provide supporting evidence that the co-opted Rpn11more »
MetaPop: a pipeline for macro- and microdiversity analyses and visualization of microbial and viral metagenome-derived populationsAbstract Background Microbes and their viruses are hidden engines driving Earth’s ecosystems from the oceans and soils to humans and bioreactors. Though gene marker approaches can now be complemented by genome-resolved studies of inter-(macrodiversity) and intra-(microdiversity) population variation, analytical tools to do so remain scattered or under-developed. Results Here, we introduce MetaPop, an open-source bioinformatic pipeline that provides a single interface to analyze and visualize microbial and viral community metagenomes at both the macro - and microdiversity levels. Macrodiversity estimates include population abundances and α- and β-diversity. Microdiversity calculations include identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms, novel codon-constrained linkage of SNPs, nucleotide diversity ( π and θ ), and selective pressures (pN/pS and Tajima’s D ) within and fixation indices ( F ST ) between populations. MetaPop will also identify genes with distinct codon usage. Following rigorous validation, we applied MetaPop to the gut viromes of autistic children that underwent fecal microbiota transfers and their neurotypical peers. The macrodiversity results confirmed our prior findings for viral populations (microbial shotgun metagenomes were not available) that diversity did not significantly differ between autistic and neurotypical children. However, by also quantifying microdiversity, MetaPop revealed lower average viral nucleotide diversity ( π ) in autisticmore »
In Vitro Double-Stranded RNA Synthesis by Rotavirus Polymerase Mutants with Lesions at Core Shell Contact SitesLópez, Susana (Ed.)ABSTRACT The rotavirus polymerase VP1 mediates all stages of viral RNA synthesis within the confines of subviral particles and while associated with the core shell protein VP2. Transcription (positive-strand RNA [+RNA] synthesis) by VP1 occurs within double-layered particles (DLPs), while genome replication (double-stranded RNA [dsRNA] synthesis) by VP1 occurs within assembly intermediates. VP2 is critical for VP1 enzymatic activity; yet, the mechanism by which the core shell protein triggers polymerase function remains poorly understood. Structural analyses of transcriptionally competent DLPs show that VP1 is located beneath the VP2 core shell and sits slightly off-center from each of the icosahedral 5-fold axes. In this position, the polymerase is contacted by the core shell at 5 distinct surface-exposed sites, comprising VP1 residues 264 to 267, 547 to 550, 614 to 620, 968 to 980, and 1022 to 1025. Here, we sought to test the functional significance of these VP2 contact sites on VP1 with regard to polymerase activity. We engineered 19 recombinant VP1 (rVP1) proteins that contained single- or multipoint alanine mutations within each individual contact site and assayed them for the capacity to synthesize dsRNA in vitro in the presence of rVP2. Three rVP1 mutants (E265A/L267A, R614A, and D971A/S978A/I980A) exhibited diminishedmore »
Viruses strongly influence microbial population dynamics and ecosystem functions. However, our ability to quantitatively evaluate those viral impacts is limited to the few cultivated viruses and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viral genomes captured in quantitative viral metagenomes (viromes). This leaves the ecology of non-dsDNA viruses nearly unknown, including single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses that have been frequently observed in viromes, but not quantified due to amplification biases in sequencing library preparations (Multiple Displacement Amplification, Linker Amplification or Tagmentation).
Here we designed mock viral communities including both ssDNA and dsDNA viruses to evaluate the capability of a sequencing library preparation approach including an Adaptase step prior to Linker Amplification for quantitative amplification of both dsDNA and ssDNA templates. We then surveyed aquatic samples to provide first estimates of the abundance of ssDNA viruses.
Mock community experiments confirmed the biased nature of existing library preparation methods for ssDNA templates (either largely enriched or selected against) and showed that the protocol using Adaptase plus Linker Amplification yielded viromes that were ±1.8-fold quantitative for ssDNA and dsDNA viruses. Application of this protocol to community virus DNA from three freshwater and three marine samples revealed that ssDNA viruses as a whole represent only a minor fraction (<5%)more »
Together these findings provide empirical data for a new virome library preparation protocol, and a first estimate of ssDNA virus abundance in aquatic systems.
ABSTRACT Viral infection exerts selection pressure on marine microbes, as virus-induced cell lysis causes 20 to 50% of cell mortality, resulting in fluxes of biomass into oceanic dissolved organic matter. Archaeal and bacterial populations can defend against viral infection using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system, which relies on specific matching between a spacer sequence and a viral gene. If a CRISPR spacer match to any gene within a viral genome is equally effective in preventing lysis, no viral genes should be preferentially matched by CRISPR spacers. However, if there are differences in effectiveness, certain viral genes may demonstrate a greater frequency of CRISPR spacer matches. Indeed, homology search analyses of bacterioplankton CRISPR spacer sequences against virioplankton sequences revealed preferential matching of replication proteins, nucleic acid binding proteins, and viral structural proteins. Positive selection pressure for effective viral defense is one parsimonious explanation for these observations. CRISPR spacers from virioplankton metagenomes preferentially matched methyltransferase and phage integrase genes within virioplankton sequences. These virioplankton CRISPR spacers may assist infected host cells in defending against competing phage. Analyses also revealed that half of the spacer-matched viral genes were unknown, some genes matched several spacers, and some spacers matchedmore »