Proper plant growth and development require spatial coordination of cell divisions. Two unrelated microtubule-binding proteins, TANGLED1 (TAN1) and AUXIN-INDUCED IN ROOT CULTURES9 (AIR9), are together required for normal growth and division plane orientation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The tan1 air9 double mutant has synthetic growth and division plane orientation defects, while single mutants lack obvious defects. Here we show that the division site-localized protein, PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN1 (POK1), was aberrantly lost from the division site during metaphase and telophase in the tan1 air9 mutant. Since TAN1 and POK1 interact via the first 132 amino acids of TAN1 (TAN11–132), we assessed the localization and function of TAN11–132 in the tan1 air9 double mutant. TAN11–132 rescued tan1 air9 mutant phenotypes and localized to the division site during telophase. However, replacing six amino-acid residues within TAN11–132, which disrupted the POK1–TAN1 interaction in the yeast-two-hybrid system, caused loss of both rescue and division site localization of TAN11–132 in the tan1 air9 mutant. Full-length TAN1 with the same alanine substitutions had defects in phragmoplast guidance and reduced TAN1 and POK1 localization at the division site but rescued most tan1 air9 mutant phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that TAN1 and AIR9 are required for POK1 localization, and yet unknown proteins may stabilize TAN1–POK1 interactions.
Cell-division-plane orientation is critical for plant and animal development and growth. TANGLED1 (TAN1) and AUXIN-INDUCED IN ROOT CULTURES 9 (AIR9) are division-site-localized microtubule-binding proteins required for division-plane positioning. The single mutants tan1 and air9 of Arabidopsis thaliana have minor or no noticeable phenotypes, but the tan1 air9 double mutant has synthetic phenotypes including stunted growth, misoriented divisions and aberrant cell-file rotation in the root differentiation zone. These data suggest that TAN1 plays a role in non-dividing cells. To determine whether TAN1 is required in elongating and differentiating cells in the tan1 air9 double mutant, we limited its expression to actively dividing cells using the G2/M-specific promoter of the syntaxin KNOLLE (pKN:TAN1–YFP). Unexpectedly, in addition to rescuing division-plane defects, expression of pKN:TAN1–YFP rescued root growth and cell file rotation defects in the root-differentiation zone in tan1 air9 double mutants. This suggests that defects that occur in the meristematic zone later affect the organization of elongating and differentiating cells.more » « less
- Award ID(s):
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- Publisher / Repository:
- The Company of Biologists
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of Cell Science
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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