skip to main content


Title: Autophagy and multivesicular body pathways cooperate to protect sulfur assimilation and chloroplast functions
Abstract

Autophagy and multivesicular bodies (MVBs) represent 2 closely related lysosomal/vacuolar degradation pathways. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), autophagy is stress-induced, with deficiency in autophagy causing strong defects in stress responses but limited effects on growth. LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 (LIP5) is a key regulator of stress-induced MVB biogenesis, and mutation of LIP5 also strongly compromises stress responses with little effect on growth in Arabidopsis. To determine the functional interactions of these 2 pathways in Arabidopsis, we generated mutations in both the LIP5 and AUTOPHAGY-RELATED PROTEIN (ATG) genes. atg5/lip5 and atg7/lip5 double mutants displayed strong synergistic phenotypes in fitness characterized by stunted growth, early senescence, reduced survival, and greatly diminished seed production under normal growth conditions. Transcriptome and metabolite analysis revealed that chloroplast sulfate assimilation was specifically downregulated at early seedling stages in the atg7/lip5 double mutant prior to the onset of visible phenotypes. Overexpression of adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase 1, a key enzyme in sulfate assimilation, substantially improved the growth and fitness of the atg7/lip5 double mutant. Comparative multi-omic analysis further revealed that the atg7/lip5 double mutant was strongly compromised in other chloroplast functions including photosynthesis and primary carbon metabolism. Premature senescence and reduced survival of atg/lip5 double mutants were associated with increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species and overactivation of stress-associated programs. Blocking PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 and salicylic acid signaling prevented early senescence and death of the atg7/lip5 double mutant. Thus, stress-responsive autophagy and MVB pathways play an important cooperative role in protecting essential chloroplast functions including sulfur assimilation under normal growth conditions to suppress salicylic-acid-dependent premature cell-death and promote plant growth and fitness.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1758767
NSF-PAR ID:
10417592
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Plant Physiology
Volume:
192
Issue:
2
ISSN:
0032-0889
Format(s):
Medium: X Size: p. 886-909
Size(s):
p. 886-909
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The phytohormone cytokinin influences many aspects of plant growth and development, several of which also involve the cellular process of autophagy, including leaf senescence, nutrient remobilization, and developmental transitions. TheArabidopsistype-A response regulators (type-A ARR) are negative regulators of cytokinin signaling that are transcriptionally induced in response to cytokinin. Here, we describe a mechanistic link between cytokinin signaling and autophagy, demonstrating that plants modulate cytokinin sensitivity through autophagic regulation of type-A ARR proteins. Type-A ARR proteins were degraded by autophagy in an AUTOPHAGY-RELATED (ATG)5-dependent manner, and this degradation is promoted by phosphorylation on a conserved aspartate in the receiver domain of the type-A ARRs. EXO70D family members interacted with type-A ARR proteins, likely in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, and recruited them to autophagosomes via interaction of the EXO70D AIM with the core autophagy protein, ATG8. Consistently, loss-of-functionexo70D1,2,3mutants exhibited compromised targeting of type-A ARRs to autophagic vesicles, have elevated levels of type-A ARR proteins, and are hyposensitive to cytokinin. Disruption of both type-AARRsandEXO70D1,2,3compromised survival in carbon-deficient conditions, suggesting interaction between autophagy and cytokinin responsiveness in response to stress. These results indicate that the EXO70D proteins act as selective autophagy receptors to target type-A ARR cargos for autophagic degradation, demonstrating modulation of cytokinin signaling by selective autophagy.

     
    more » « less
  2. Plants balance their competing requirements for growth and stress tolerance via a sophisticated regulatory circuitry that controls responses to the external environments. We have identified a plant-specific gene, COST1 ( constitutively stressed 1 ), that is required for normal plant growth but negatively regulates drought resistance by influencing the autophagy pathway. An Arabidopsis thaliana cost1 mutant has decreased growth and increased drought tolerance, together with constitutive autophagy and increased expression of drought-response genes, while overexpression of COST1 confers drought hypersensitivity and reduced autophagy. The COST1 protein is degraded upon plant dehydration, and this degradation is reduced upon treatment with inhibitors of the 26S proteasome or autophagy pathways. The drought resistance of a cost1 mutant is dependent on an active autophagy pathway, but independent of other known drought signaling pathways, indicating that COST1 acts through regulation of autophagy. In addition, COST1 colocalizes to autophagosomes with the autophagosome marker ATG8e and the autophagy adaptor NBR1, and affects the level of ATG8e protein through physical interaction with ATG8e, indicating a pivotal role in direct regulation of autophagy. We propose a model in which COST1 represses autophagy under optimal conditions, thus allowing plant growth. Under drought, COST1 is degraded, enabling activation of autophagy and suppression of growth to enhance drought tolerance. Our research places COST1 as an important regulator controlling the balance between growth and stress responses via the direct regulation of autophagy. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    DUF177 proteins are nearly universally conserved in bacteria and plants except the Chlorophyceae algae. Thus far, duf177 mutants in bacteria have not established a function. In contrast, duf177a mutants have embryo lethal phenotypes in maize and Arabidopsis. In maize inbred W22, duf177a mutant embryos arrest at an early transition stage, whereas the block is suppressed in the B73 inbred background, conditioning an albino seedling phenotype. Background-dependent embryo lethal phenotypes are characteristic of maize plastid gene expression mutants. Consistent with the plastid gene expression hypothesis, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a significant reduction of 23S rRNA in an Escherichia coli duf177 knockout. Plastid 23S rRNA contents of duf177a mutant tissues were also markedly reduced compared with the wild-type, whereas plastid 16S, 5S, and 4.5S rRNA contents were less affected, indicating that DUF177 is specifically required for accumulation of prokaryote-type 23S rRNA. An AtDUF177A–green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene controlled by the native AtDUF177A promoter fully complemented the Arabidopsis atduf177a mutant. Transient expression of AtDUF177A–GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that the protein was localized in chloroplasts. The essential role of DUF177A in chloroplast–ribosome formation is reminiscent of IOJAP, another highly conserved ribosome-associated protein, suggesting that key mechanisms controlling ribosome formation in plastids evolved from non-essential pathways for regulation of the prokaryotic ribosome.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Jasmonate (JA) is an important hormone involved in regulating diverse responses to environmental factors as well as growth and development, and its signalling is influenced by other hormones such as ethylene (ET). However, our understanding of the regulatory relationship between the JA and ET signalling pathways is limited. In this study, we isolated an Arabidopsis JA-hypersensitive mutant, jah3 (jasmonate hypersensitive3)-1. Map-based cloning revealed that the JAH3 gene corresponds to At4g16535. JAH3 encodes a protein of unknown function whose amino acid sequence has similarity to leukocyte receptor cluster-like protein. The mutation in jah3-1 is caused by a single nucleotide change from A to T at position 220 of 759 bp. Using CRISPR-Cas9, we generated a second allele, jah3-2, that encodes a truncated protein. Both of these loss-of-function alleles resulted in hypersensitivity to JA, ET-induced root growth inhibition, and accelerated dark-induced senescence. Double mutant analyses employing coronatine insensitive 1 (coi1) and ethylene insensitive 3 (ein3) mutants (jah3 coi1 and jah3 ein3) demonstrated that the hypersensitive phenotypes of the jah3 mutants are mediated by JA and ET signalling components COI1 and EIN3. Therefore, we propose that JAH3 is a negative regulator of both JA and ET signalling.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Proper plant growth and development require spatial coordination of cell divisions. Two unrelated microtubule-binding proteins, TANGLED1 (TAN1) and AUXIN-INDUCED IN ROOT CULTURES9 (AIR9), are together required for normal growth and division plane orientation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The tan1 air9 double mutant has synthetic growth and division plane orientation defects, while single mutants lack obvious defects. Here we show that the division site-localized protein, PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN1 (POK1), was aberrantly lost from the division site during metaphase and telophase in the tan1 air9 mutant. Since TAN1 and POK1 interact via the first 132 amino acids of TAN1 (TAN11–132), we assessed the localization and function of TAN11–132 in the tan1 air9 double mutant. TAN11–132 rescued tan1 air9 mutant phenotypes and localized to the division site during telophase. However, replacing six amino-acid residues within TAN11–132, which disrupted the POK1–TAN1 interaction in the yeast-two-hybrid system, caused loss of both rescue and division site localization of TAN11–132 in the tan1 air9 mutant. Full-length TAN1 with the same alanine substitutions had defects in phragmoplast guidance and reduced TAN1 and POK1 localization at the division site but rescued most tan1 air9 mutant phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that TAN1 and AIR9 are required for POK1 localization, and yet unknown proteins may stabilize TAN1–POK1 interactions.

     
    more » « less