skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, June 13 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, June 14 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Archaeal roots of intramembrane aspartyl protease siblings signal peptide peptidase and presenilin
Abstract

Signal peptides help newly synthesized proteins reach the cell membrane or be secreted. As part of a biological process key to immune response and surveillance in humans, and associated with diseases, for example, Alzheimer, remnant signal peptides and other transmembrane segments are proteolyzed by the intramembrane aspartyl protease (IAP) enzyme family. Here, we identified IAP orthologs throughout the tree of life. In addition to eukaryotes, IAPs are encoded in metabolically diverse archaea from a wide range of environments. We found three distinct clades of archaeal IAPs: (a)Euryarchaeota(eg, halophilicHalobacteriales, methanogenicMethanosarcinalesandMethanomicrobiales, marinePoseidoniales, acidophilicThermoplasmatales, hyperthermophilicArchaeoglobusspp.), (b) DPANN, and (c)Bathyarchaeota,Crenarchaeota, andAsgard. IAPs were also present in bacterial genomes from uncultivated members of Candidate Phylum Radiation, perhaps due to horizontal gene transfer from DPANN archaeal lineages. Sequence analysis of the catalytic motif YD…GXGD (where X is any amino acid) in IAPs from archaea and bacteria reveals WD inLokiarchaeotaand many residue types in the X position. Gene neighborhood analysis in halophilic archaea shows IAP genes near corrinoid transporters (btuCDFgenes). In marineEuryarchaeota, a putative BtuF‐like domain is found in N‐terminus of the IAP gene, suggesting a role for these IAPs in metal ion cofactor or other nutrient scavenging. Interestingly, eukaryotic IAP family members appear to have evolved either fromEuryarchaeotaor fromAsgardarchaea. Taken together, our phylogenetic and bioinformatics analysis should prompt experiments to probe the biological roles of IAPs in prokaryotic secretomes.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1817796
NSF-PAR ID:
10374701
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics
Volume:
89
Issue:
2
ISSN:
0887-3585
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 232-241
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Embley, Martin (Ed.)
    Abstract Interest and controversy surrounding the evolutionary origins of extremely halophilic Archaea has increased in recent years, due to the discovery and characterization of the Nanohaloarchaea and the Methanonatronarchaeia. Initial attempts in explaining the evolutionary placement of the two new lineages in relation to the classical Halobacteria (also referred to as Haloarchaea) resulted in hypotheses that imply the new groups share a common ancestor with the Haloarchaea. However, more recent analyses have led to a shift: the Nanohaloarchaea have been largely accepted as being a member of the DPANN superphylum, outside of the euryarchaeota; whereas the Methanonatronarchaeia have been placed near the base of the Methanotecta (composed of the class II methanogens, the Halobacteriales, and Archaeoglobales). These opposing hypotheses have far-reaching implications on the concepts of convergent evolution (distantly related groups evolve similar strategies for survival), genome reduction, and gene transfer. In this work, we attempt to resolve these conflicts with phylogenetic and phylogenomic data. We provide a robust taxonomic sampling of Archaeal genomes that spans the Asgardarchaea, TACK Group, euryarchaeota, and the DPANN superphylum. In addition, we assembled draft genomes from seven new representatives of the Nanohaloarchaea from distinct geographic locations. Phylogenies derived from these data imply that the highly conserved ATP synthase catalytic/noncatalytic subunits of Nanohaloarchaea share a sisterhood relationship with the Haloarchaea. We also employ a novel gene family distance clustering strategy which shows this sisterhood relationship is not likely the result of a recent gene transfer. In addition, we present and evaluate data that argue for and against the monophyly of the DPANN superphylum, in particular, the inclusion of the Nanohaloarchaea in DPANN. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    The exploration of Earth’s terrestrial subsurface biosphere has led to the discovery of several new archaeal lineages of evolutionary significance. Similarly, the deep subseafloor crustal biosphere also harbors many unique, uncultured archaeal taxa, including those belonging to Candidatus Hydrothermarchaeota, formerly known as Marine Benthic Group-E. Recently, Hydrothermarchaeota was identified as an abundant lineage of Juan de Fuca Ridge flank crustal fluids, suggesting its adaptation to this extreme environment. Through the investigation of single-cell and metagenome-assembled genomes, we provide insight into the lineage’s evolutionary history and metabolic potential. Phylogenomic analysis reveals the Hydrothermarchaeota to be an early-branching archaeal phylum, branching between the superphylum DPANN, Euryarchaeota, and Asgard lineages. Hydrothermarchaeota genomes suggest a potential for dissimilative and assimilative carbon monoxide oxidation (carboxydotrophy), as well as sulfate and nitrate reduction. There is also a prevalence of chemotaxis and motility genes, indicating adaptive strategies for this nutrient-limited fluid-rock environment. These findings provide the first genomic interpretations of the Hydrothermarchaeota phylum and highlight the anoxic, hot, deep marine crustal biosphere as an important habitat for understanding the evolution of early life.

     
    more » « less
  3. Giovannoni, Stephen J. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT <p>Archaea belonging to the DPANN (Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota, and Nanohaloarchaeota) superphylum have been found in an expanding number of environments and perform a variety of biogeochemical roles, including contributing to carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycling. Generally characterized by ultrasmall cell sizes and reduced genomes, DPANN archaea may form mutualistic, commensal, or parasitic interactions with various archaeal and bacterial hosts, influencing the ecology and functioning of microbial communities. While DPANN archaea reportedly comprise a sizeable fraction of the archaeal community within marine oxygen-deficient zone (ODZ) water columns, little is known about their metabolic capabilities in these ecosystems. We report 33 novel metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to the DPANN phyla Nanoarchaeota, Pacearchaeota, Woesearchaeota, Undinarchaeota, Iainarchaeota, and SpSt-1190 from pelagic ODZs in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific and the Arabian Sea. We find these archaea to be permanent, stable residents of all three major ODZs only within anoxic depths, comprising up to 1% of the total microbial community and up to 25%–50% of archaea as estimated from read mapping to MAGs. ODZ DPANN appear to be capable of diverse metabolic functions, including fermentation, organic carbon scavenging, and the cycling of sulfur, hydrogen, and methane. Within a majority of ODZ DPANN, we identify a gene homologous to nitrous oxide reductase. Modeling analyses indicate the feasibility of a nitrous oxide reduction metabolism for host-attached symbionts, and the small genome sizes and reduced metabolic capabilities of most DPANN MAGs suggest host-associated lifestyles within ODZs.</p></sec> <sec><title>IMPORTANCE

    Archaea from the DPANN (Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota, and Nanohaloarchaeota) superphylum have diverse metabolic capabilities and participate in multiple biogeochemical cycles. While metagenomics and enrichments have revealed that many DPANN are characterized by ultrasmall genomes, few biosynthetic genes, and episymbiotic lifestyles, much remains unknown about their biology. We report 33 new DPANN metagenome-assembled genomes originating from the three global marine oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs), the first from these regions. We survey DPANN abundance and distribution within the ODZ water column, investigate their biosynthetic capabilities, and report potential roles in the cycling of organic carbon, methane, and nitrogen. We test the hypothesis that nitrous oxide reductases found within several ODZ DPANN genomes may enable ultrasmall episymbionts to serve as nitrous oxide consumers when attached to a host nitrous oxide producer. Our results indicate DPANN archaea as ubiquitous residents within the anoxic core of ODZs with the potential to produce or consume key compounds.

     
    more » « less
  4. Spring, Stefan (Ed.)

    It has been proposed that the superphylum of Asgard Archaea may represent a historical link between the Archaea and Eukarya. Following the discovery of the Archaea, it was soon appreciated that archaeal ribosomes were more similar to those of Eukarya rather than Bacteria. Coupled with other eukaryotic-like features, it has been suggested that the Asgard Archaea may be directly linked to eukaryotes. However, the genomes of Bacteria and non-Asgard Archaea generally organize ribosome-related genes into clusters that likely function as operons. In contrast, eukaryotes typically do not employ an operon strategy. To gain further insight into conservation of the r-protein genes, the genome order of conserved ribosomal protein (r-protein) coding genes was identified in 17 Asgard genomes (thirteen complete genomes and four genomes with less than 20 contigs) and compared with those found previously in non-Asgard archaeal and bacterial genomes. A universal core of two clusters of 14 and 4 cooccurring r-proteins, respectively, was identified in both the Asgard and non-Asgard Archaea. The equivalent genes in the E. coli version of the cluster are found in the S10 and spc operons. The large cluster of 14 r-protein genes (uS19-uL22-uS3-uL29-uS17 from the S10 operon and uL14-uL24-uL5-uS14-uS8-uL6-uL18-uS5-uL30-uL15 from the spc operon) occurs as a complete set in the genomes of thirteen Asgard genomes (five Lokiarchaeotes, three Heimdallarchaeotes, one Odinarchaeote, and four Thorarchaeotes). Four less conserved clusters with partial bacterial equivalents were found in the Asgard. These were the L30e (str operon in Bacteria) cluster, the L18e (alpha operon in Bacteria) cluster, the S24e-S27ae-rpoE1 cluster, and the L31e, L12..L1 cluster. Finally, a new cluster referred to as L7ae was identified. In many cases, r-protein gene clusters/operons are less conserved in their organization in the Asgard group than in other Archaea. If this is generally true for nonribosomal gene clusters, the results may have implications for the history of genome organization. In particular, there may have been an early transition to or from the operon approach to genome organization. Other nonribosomal cellular features may support different relationships. For this reason, it may be important to consider ribosome features separately.

     
    more » « less
  5. Moran, Mary Ann (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT The genomes of Asgard Archaea , a novel archaeal proposed superphylum, share an enriched repertoire of eukaryotic signature genes and thus promise to provide insights into early eukaryote evolution. However, the distribution, metabolisms, cellular structures, and ecology of the members within this superphylum are not well understood. Here we provide a meta-analysis of the environmental distribution of the Asgard archaea, based on available 16S rRNA gene sequences. Metagenome sequencing of samples from a salt-crusted lagoon on the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico allowed the assembly of a new Thorarchaeota and three Lokiarchaeota genomes. Comparative analyses of all known Lokiarchaeota and Thorarchaeota genomes revealed overlapping genome content, including central carbon metabolism. Members of both groups contained putative reductive dehalogenase genes, suggesting that these organisms might be able to metabolize halogenated organic compounds. Unlike the first report on Lokiarchaeota , we identified genes encoding glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase in all Loki - and Thorarchaeota genomes, suggesting that these organisms are able to synthesize bona fide archaeal lipids with their characteristic glycerol stereochemistry. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms of the superphylum Asgard Archaea are considered to be the closest living prokaryotic relatives of eukaryotes (including plants and animals) and thus promise to give insights into the early evolution of more complex life forms. However, very little is known about their biology as none of the organisms has yet been cultivated in the laboratory. Here we report on the ecological distribution of Asgard Archaea and on four newly sequenced genomes of the Lokiarchaeota and Thorarchaeota lineages that give insight into possible metabolic features that might eventually help to identify these enigmatic groups of archaea in the environment and to culture them. 
    more » « less