skip to main content

Title: An Overview of CHIME, the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment
Abstract

The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is a drift scan radio telescope operating across the 400–800 MHz band. CHIME is located at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory near Penticton, BC, Canada. The instrument is designed to map neutral hydrogen over the redshift range 0.8–2.5 to constrain the expansion history of the universe. This goal drives the design features of the instrument. CHIME consists of four parallel cylindrical reflectors, oriented north–south, each 100 m × 20 m and outfitted with a 256-element dual-polarization linear feed array. CHIME observes a two-degree-wide stripe covering the entire meridian at any given moment, observing three-quarters of the sky every day owing to Earth’s rotation. An FX correlator utilizes field-programmable gate arrays and graphics processing units to digitize and correlate the signals, with different correlation products generated for cosmological, fast radio burst, pulsar, very long baseline interferometry, and 21 cm absorber back ends. For the cosmology back end, theNfeed2correlation matrix is formed for 1024 frequency channels across the band every 31 ms. A data receiver system applies calibration and flagging and, for our primary cosmological data product, stacks redundant baselines and integrates for 10 s. We present an overview of the more » instrument, its performance metrics based on the first 3 yr of science data, and we describe the current progress in characterizing CHIME’s primary beam response. We also present maps of the sky derived from CHIME data; we are using versions of these maps for a cosmological stacking analysis, as well as for investigation of Galactic foregrounds.

« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Award ID(s):
2008031 2006548
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10375044
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
Volume:
261
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 29
ISSN:
0067-0049
Publisher:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Recently, the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) has produced the experiment’s first upper limits on the power spectrum of 21 cm fluctuations atz∼ 8 and 10. Here, we use several independent theoretical models to infer constraints on the intergalactic medium (IGM) and galaxies during the epoch of reionization from these limits. We find that the IGM must have been heated above the adiabatic-cooling threshold byz∼ 8, independent of uncertainties about IGM ionization and the radio background. Combining HERA limits with complementary observations constrains the spin temperature of thez∼ 8 neutral IGM to 27 KT¯S630 K (2.3 KT¯S640 K) at 68% (95%) confidence. They therefore also place a lower bound on X-ray heating, a previously unconstrained aspects of early galaxies. For example, if the cosmic microwave background dominates thez∼ 8 radio background, the new HERA limits imply that the first galaxies produced X-rays more efficiently than local ones. Thez∼ 10 limits require even earlier heating if dark-matter interactions cool the hydrogen gas. If an extra radio background is produced by galaxies, we rule out (at 95% confidence) the combination of high radio and low X-raymore »luminosities ofLr,ν/SFR > 4 × 1024W Hz−1M1yr andLX/SFR < 7.6 × 1039erg s−1M1yr. The new HERA upper limits neither support nor disfavor a cosmological interpretation of the recent Experiment to Detect the Global EOR Signature (EDGES) measurement. The framework described here provides a foundation for the interpretation of future HERA results.

    « less
  2. Abstract

    We present the direct imaging discovery of a low-mass companion to the nearby accelerating F star, HIP 5319, using SCExAO coupled with the CHARIS, VAMPIRES, and MEC instruments in addition to Keck/NIRC2 imaging. CHARISJHK(1.1–2.4μm) spectroscopic data combined with VAMPIRES 750 nm, MECY, and NIRC2Lpphotometry is best matched by an M3–M7 object with an effective temperature ofT= 3200 K and surface gravity log(g) = 5.5. Using the relative astrometry for HIP 5319 B from CHARIS and NIRC2, and absolute astrometry for the primary from Gaia and Hipparcos, and adopting a log-normal prior assumption for the companion mass, we measure a dynamical mass for HIP 5319 B of3111+35MJ, a semimajor axis of18.64.1+10au, an inclination of69.415+5.6degrees, and an eccentricity of0.420.29+0.39. However, using an alternate prior for our dynamical model yields a much higher mass of12888+127MJ. Using data taken with the LCOGT NRES instrument we also show that the primary HIP 5319 A is a single star in contrast to previous characterizations of the system as a spectroscopic binary. This work underscores the importance of assumed priors in dynamical models for companions detected with imaging andmore »astrometry, and the need to have an updated inventory of system measurements.

    « less
  3. Abstract

    We present a measurement of the intrinsic space density of intermediate-redshift (z∼ 0.5), massive (M*∼ 1011M), compact (Re∼ 100 pc) starburst (ΣSFR∼ 1000Myr−1kpc−1) galaxies with tidal features indicative of them having undergone recent major mergers. A subset of them host kiloparsec-scale, > 1000 km s−1outflows and have little indication of AGN activity, suggesting that extreme star formation can be a primary driver of large-scale feedback. The aim for this paper is to calculate their space density so we can place them in a better cosmological context. We do this by empirically modeling the stellar populations of massive, compact starburst galaxies. We determine the average timescale on which galaxies that have recently undergone an extreme nuclear starburst would be targeted and included in our spectroscopically selected sample. We find that massive, compact starburst galaxies targeted by our criteria would be selectable for14824+27Myr and have an intrinsic space densitynCS(1.10.3+0.5)×106Mpc3. This space density is broadly consistent with ourz∼ 0.5 compact starbursts being the most extremely compact and star-forming low-redshift analogs of the compact star-forming galaxies in the early universe, as well as them being the progenitors to a fraction of intermediate-redshift, post-starburst, andmore »compact quiescent galaxies.

    « less
  4. Abstract

    We present spatially resolved morphological properties of [CII] 158μm, [OIII] 88μm, dust, and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum emission for A1689-zD1, a strongly lensed, sub-L* galaxy atz= 7.13, by utilizing deep Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. While the [OIII] line and UV continuum are compact, the [CII] line is extended up to a radius ofr∼ 12 kpc. Using multi-band rest-frame far-infrared continuum data ranging from 52 to 400μm, we find an average dust temperature and emissivity index ofTdust=4114+17K andβ=1.70.7+1.1, respectively, across the galaxy. We find slight differences in the dust continuum profiles at different wavelengths, which may indicate that the dust temperature decreases with distance. We map the star formation rate (SFR) via IR and UV luminosities and determine a total SFR of 37 ± 1Myr−1with an obscured fraction of 87%. While the [OIII] line is a good tracer of the SFR, the [CII] line shows deviation from the localL[CII]-SFR relations in the outskirts of the galaxy. Finally, we observe a clear difference in the line profile between [CII] and [OIII], with significant residuals (∼5σ) in the [OIII] line spectrum after subtracting a single Gaussian model. This suggestsmore »a possible origin of the extended [CII] structure from the cooling of hot ionized outflows. The extended [CII] and high-velocity [OIII] emission may both contribute in part to the highL[OIII]/L[CII]ratios recently reported inz> 6 galaxies.

    « less
  5. Abstract

    The warm Neptune GJ 3470b transits a nearby (d= 29 pc) bright slowly rotating M1.5-dwarf star. Using spectroscopic observations during two transits with the newly commissioned NEID spectrometer on the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope at Kitt Peak Observatory, we model the classical Rossiter–McLaughlin effect, yielding a sky-projected obliquity ofλ=9812+15and avsini=0.850.33+0.27kms1. Leveraging information about the rotation period and size of the host star, our analysis yields a true obliquity ofψ=958+9, revealing that GJ 3470b is on a polar orbit. Using radial velocities from HIRES, HARPS, and the Habitable-zone Planet Finder, we show that the data are compatible with a long-term radial velocity (RV) slope ofγ̇=0.0022±0.0011ms1day1over a baseline of 12.9 yr. If the RV slope is due to acceleration from another companion in the system, we show that such a companion is capable of explaining the polar and mildly eccentric orbit of GJ 3470b using two different secular excitation models. The existence of an outer companion can be further constrained with additional RV observations, Gaia astrometry, and future high-contrast imaging observations. Lastly, we show that tidal heating frommore »GJ 3470b’s mild eccentricity has most likely inflated the radius of GJ 3470b by a factor of ∼1.5–1.7, which could help account for its evaporating atmosphere.

    « less