skip to main content

Title: Global Responses of Gravity Waves and Zonal Mean Winds to the Madden‐Julian Oscillation and the Latitudinal Dependence of Their Relations Using MERRA‐2

Using 17 years of Modern‐Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA‐2) data, significant responses of gravity wave (GW) variances, zonal winds and parameterized GW drag to the Madden‐Julian Oscillation (MJO) are identified globally during boreal winter, and their relations are examined. The relative anomalies of GW variances range from −4% (phase 7) to 8% (phase 4) in tropics, and −20% (phase 1) to 20% (phase 5) in the northern polar region (NPR). The anomalies of zonal winds are from −3–3 m/s and −4–8 m/s in tropics and NPR, respectively. The vertical and latitudinal structures of MJO signals in GW, wind and GW drag show coherent patterns. Further analysis implies that in the NPR, the eastward wind leads to westward momentum flux carried by the GWs. This flux leads to westward drag, which drives that of zonal winds and imprint the MJO signal in GWs to the wind.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    The 17‐year SABER‐observed gravity wave (GW) temperature variances reveal significant responses of GWs to the Madden‐Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the middle atmosphere (30–100 km) in tropics and extratropics (45°S to 45°N) for boreal winter. The responses vary significantly with latitude but barely with altitude. From 20°S to 45°N, strong positive anomalies are found for MJO Phases 3–5, while negative anomalies for Phases 7–8. From 45–20°S, these patterns are reversed. The peak‐to‐peak differences (positive‐to‐negative anomalies) are ~6–16% relative to the seasonal mean. Comparison with MJO modulations on tropical convection and polar vortex suggests that GW responses in tropics may result from the modulation of GW source, while responses in northern extratropics may result from the modulation of polar vortex, which in turn modulates GW activities. These results highlight the importance of GWs to imprint the tropical MJO signals vertically to the middle atmosphere and horizontally to extratropical regions.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    We present a new version of the high‐resolution Kühlungsborn Mechanistic general Circulation Model (KMCM) extended toz ∼ 450 km. This model is called HIAMCM (HI Altitude Mechanistic general Circulation Model) and explicitly simulates gravity waves (GWs) down to horizontal wavelengths ofλh  165 km. We find predominant tertiary GWs in the winter thermosphere at middle/high latitudes. These GWs typically have horizontal wavelengthsλh ∼ 300–1,100 km, ground‐based periods25–90 min, and intrinsic horizontal phase speedscIh ∼ 250–350 m s−1. Abovez∼ 200 km, the predominant GW horizontal propagation directions are roughly against the background winds from the diurnal tide; the GWs propagate mainly poleward at midnight, eastward at 6 local time (LT), equatorward at noon, and westward at 18 LT. Wintertime GWs atz∼ 300 km having 165 km λh≤ 330 km create a large hot spot over the Southern Andes/Antarctic Peninsula that agrees well with quiet time satellite measurements. Due to cancelation effects, the time‐averaged zonal mean Eliassen‐Palm flux divergence from the resolved GWs in the thermosphere is negligible compared to that of the tides and compared to the zonal component of the time‐averaged zonal mean ion drag. We also find that the thermospheric GWs dissipate mainly from macroturbulent diffusion and, abovez∼ 200 km, from molecular diffusion, whereas the tides dissipate mainly from ion drag. The averaged dissipative heating in the thermosphere due to tides is much stronger than that due to GWs.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    It is well known that stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) are a result of the interaction between planetary waves (PWs) and the stratospheric polar vortex. SSWs occur when breaking PWs slow down or even reverse this zonal wind jet and induce a sinking motion that adiabatically warms the stratosphere and lowers the stratopause. In this paper we characterize this downward progression of stratospheric temperature anomalies using 18 years (2003–2020) of Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Radiometry (SABER) observations. SABER temperatures, derived zonal winds, PW activity and gravity wave (GW) activity during January and February of each year indicate a high‐degree of year‐to‐year variability. From 11 stratospheric warming events (9 major and 2 minor events), the descent rate of the stratopause altitude varies from 0.5 to 2 km/day and the lowest altitude the stratopause descends to varies from <20 to ∼50 km (i.e., no descent). A composite analysis of temperature and squared GW amplitude anomalies indicate that the downward descent of temperature anomalies from 50 to ∼25 km lags the downward progression of increased GW activity. This increased GW activity coincides with the weakening and reversal of the westward zonal winds in agreement with previous studies. Our study suggests that although PWs drive the onset of SSWs at 30 km, GWs also play a role in contributing to the descent of temperature anomalies from the stratopause to the middle and lower stratosphere.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    A new Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) gravity wave (GW) variance data set is available that facilitates automated analysis of GWs entering the mesosphere. This work examines several years of CIPS GW variances from 50 to 55 km in the context of the Arctic and Antarctic polar vortices. CIPS observes highest GW activity in the vortex edge region where horizontal wind speeds are largest, consistent with previously published GW climatologies in the stratosphere and mesosphere. CIPS observes the well‐documented planetary wave (PW)‐1 patterns in GW activity in both hemispheres. In the Northern Hemisphere, maximum GW activity occurs over the North Atlantic and western Europe. In the Southern Hemisphere, maximum GW activity stretches from the Andes over the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans, as expected. In the NH, CIPS GW spatial patterns are highly correlated with horizontal wind speed. In the SH, CIPS GW patterns are less positively correlated with the winds due to increased zonal symmetry and orographic forcing. The Andes Mountains and Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia Island, Kerguelen/Heard Islands, New Zealand, and Tasmania are persistent sources of orographic GWs. Atmospheric Infrared sounder observations of stratospheric GWs are analyzed alongside CIPS to explore vertical GW coherence and to infer GW propagation and sources. NH midlatitude GW activity is reduced during the January 2021 SSW, as expected. This reduction in GWs leads to a simultaneous reduction in traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs), providing more evidence that weak polar vortex events with weak GW activity leads to reduced daytime TID activity.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Oblique propagation of gravity waves (GWs) refers to the latitudinal propagation (or vertical propagation away from their source) from the low‐latitude troposphere to the polar mesosphere. This propagation is not included in current gravity wave parameterization schemes, but may be an important component of the global dynamical structure. Previous studies have revealed a high correlation between observations of GW pseudomomentum flux (GWMF) from monsoon convection and Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) in the northern hemisphere. In this work, we report on data and model analysis of the effects of stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) in the northern hemisphere, on the oblique propagation of GWs from the southern hemisphere tropics, which in turn influence PMCs in the southern summer mesosphere. In response to SSWs, the propagation of GWs at the midlatitude winter hemisphere is enhanced. This enhancement appears to be slanted toward the equator with increasing altitude and follows the stratospheric eastward jet. The oblique propagation of GWs from the southern monsoon regions tends to start at higher altitudes with a sharper poleward slanted structure toward the summer mesosphere. The correlation between PMCs in the summer southern hemisphere and the zonal GWMF from 50°N to 50°S exhibits a pattern of high‐correlation coefficients that connects the winter stratosphere with the summer mesosphere, indicating the influence of Interhemispheric Coupling mechanism. Temperature and wind anomalies suggest that the dynamics in the winter hemisphere can influence the equatorial region, which in turn, can influence the oblique propagation of monsoon GWs.

    more » « less