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Taxonomic, Genomic, and Functional Variation in the Gut Microbiomes of Wild Spotted Hyenas Across 2 Decades of StudyHird, Sarah M. (Ed.)The gut microbiome provides vital functions for mammalian hosts, yet research on its variability and function across adult life spans and multiple generations is limited in large mammalian carnivores. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic high-throughput sequencing to profile the bacterial taxonomic composition, genomic diversity, and metabolic function of fecal samples collected from 12 wild spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta ) residing in the Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, over a 23-year period spanning three generations. The metagenomic data came from four of these hyenas and spanned two 2-year periods. With these data, we determined the extent to which host factors predicted variation in the gut microbiome and identified the core microbes present in the guts of hyenas. We also investigated novel genomic diversity in the mammalian gut by reporting the first metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) for hyenas. We found that gut microbiome taxonomic composition varied temporally, but despite this, a core set of 14 bacterial genera were identified. The strongest predictors of the microbiome were host identity and age, suggesting that hyenas possess individualized microbiomes and that these may change with age during adulthood. The gut microbiome functional profiles of the four adult hyenas were also individual specificmore »
Leave no stone unturned: individually adapted xerotolerant Thaumarchaeota sheltered below the boulders of the Atacama Desert hyperarid core
The hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert is an extremely harsh environment thought to be colonized by only a few heterotrophic bacterial species. Current concepts for understanding this extreme ecosystem are mainly based on the diversity of these few species, yet a substantial area of the Atacama Desert hyperarid topsoil is covered by expansive boulder accumulations, whose underlying microbiomes have not been investigated so far. With the hypothesis that these sheltered soils harbor uniquely adapted microbiomes, we compared metagenomes and geochemistry between soils below and beside boulders across three distantly located boulder accumulations in the Atacama Desert hyperarid core.
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Thaumarchaeota, CandidatusNitrosodeserticola. We resolved eight mid-to-high quality genomes of this genus and used comparative genomics to analyze its pangenome and site-specific adaptations. Ca.Nitrosodeserticola genomes contain genes for ammonia oxidation, the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate carbon fixation pathway, and acetate utilization indicating a chemolithoautotrophic and mixotrophic lifestyle. They also possess the capacity for toleratingmore » Conclusion
We provide the first genomic characterization of hyperarid soil microbiomes below the boulders in the Atacama Desert, and report abundant and highly adapted
Thaumarchaeaotawith ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation potential. Ca.Nitrosodeserticola genomes provide the first metabolic and physiological insight into a thaumarchaeal lineage found in globally distributed terrestrial habitats characterized by various environmental stresses. We consequently expand not only the known genetic repertoire of Thaumarchaeotabut also the diversity and microbiome functioning in hyperarid ecosystems.
Identification of the Bacterial Biosynthetic Gene Clusters of the Oral Microbiome Illuminates the Unexplored Social Language of Bacteria during Health and DiseaseABSTRACT Small molecules are the primary communication media of the microbial world. Recent bioinformatic studies, exploring the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) which produce many small molecules, have highlighted the incredible biochemical potential of the signaling molecules encoded by the human microbiome. Thus far, most research efforts have focused on understanding the social language of the gut microbiome, leaving crucial signaling molecules produced by oral bacteria and their connection to health versus disease in need of investigation. In this study, a total of 4,915 BGCs were identified across 461 genomes representing a broad taxonomic diversity of oral bacteria. Sequence similarity networking provided a putative product class for more than 100 unclassified novel BGCs. The newly identified BGCs were cross-referenced against 254 metagenomes and metatranscriptomes derived from individuals either with good oral health or with dental caries or periodontitis. This analysis revealed 2,473 BGCs, which were differentially represented across the oral microbiomes associated with health versus disease. Coabundance network analysis identified numerous inverse correlations between BGCs and specific oral taxa. These correlations were present in healthy individuals but greatly reduced in individuals with dental caries, which may suggest a defect in colonization resistance. Finally, corroborating mass spectrometry identified several compounds with homologymore »
Pseudomonas cultivated from Andropogon gerardii rhizosphere show functional potential for promoting plant host growth and drought resilience
Climate change will result in more frequent droughts that can impact soil-inhabiting microbiomes (rhizobiomes) in the agriculturally vital North American perennial grasslands. Rhizobiomes have contributed to enhancing drought resilience and stress resistance properties in plant hosts. In the predicted events of more future droughts, how the changing rhizobiome under environmental stress can impact the plant host resilience needs to be deciphered. There is also an urgent need to identify and recover candidate microorganisms along with their functions, involved in enhancing plant resilience, enabling the successful development of synthetic communities.
In this study, we used the combination of cultivation and high-resolution genomic sequencing of bacterial communities recovered from the rhizosphere of a tallgrass prairie foundation grass,
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