- Publication Date:
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- Journal Name:
- Quantum Science and Technology
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- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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The control of cryogenic qubits in today’s super-conducting quantum computer prototypes presents significant scalability challenges due to the massive costs of generating/routing the analog control signals that need to be sent from a classical controller at room temperature to the quantum chip inside the dilution refrigerator. Thus, researchers in industry and academia have focused on designing in-fridge classical controllers in order to mitigate these challenges. Due to the maturity of CMOS logic, many industrial efforts (Microsoft, Intel) have focused on Cryo-CMOS as a near-term solution to design in-fridge classical controllers. Meanwhile, Supercon-ducting Single Flux Quantum (SFQ) is an alternative, less mature classical logic family proposed for large-scale in-fridge controllers. SFQ logic has the potential to maximize scalability thanks to its ultra-high speed and very low power consumption. However, architecture design for SFQ logic poses challenges due to its unconventional pulse-driven nature and lack of dense memory and logic. Thus, research at the architecture level is essential to guide architects to design SFQ-based classical controllers for large-scale quantum machines.In this paper, we present DigiQ, the first system-level design of a Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum (NISQ)-friendly SFQ-based classical controller. We perform a design space exploration of SFQ-based controllers and co-design the quantummore »
Quantum technologies are maturing by the day and their near-term applications are now of great interest. Deep-space optical communication involves transmission over the pure-state classical-quantum channel. For optimal detection, a joint measurement on all output qubits is required in general. Since this is hard to realize, current (sub-optimal) schemes perform symbol-by-symbol detection followed by classical post-processing. In this paper we focus on a recently proposed belief propagation algorithm by Renes that passes qubit messages on the factor graph of a classical error-correcting code. More importantly, it only involves single-qubit Pauli measurements during the process. For an example 5-bit code, we analyze the involved density matrices and calculate the error probabilities on this channel. Then we numerically compute the optimal joint detection limit using the Yuen-Kennedy-Lax conditions and demonstrate that the calculated error probabilities for this algorithm appear to achieve this limit. This represents a first step towards achieveing quantum communication advantage. We verify our analysis using Monte-Carlo simulations in practice.
Quantum computers are growing in size, and design decisions are being made now that attempt to squeeze more computation out of these machines. In this spirit, we design a method to boost the computational power of near-term quantum computers by adapting protocols used in quantum error correction to implement "Approximate Quantum Error Correction (AQEC)." By approximating fully-fledged error correction mechanisms, we can increase the compute volume (qubits × gates, or "Simple Quantum Volume (SQV)") of near-term machines. The crux of our design is a fast hardware decoder that can approximately decode detected error syndromes rapidly. Specifically, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept that approximate error decoding can be accomplished online in near-term quantum systems by designing and implementing a novel algorithm in Single-Flux Quantum (SFQ) superconducting logic technology. This avoids a critical decoding backlog, hidden in all offline decoding schemes, that leads to idle time exponential in the number of T gates in a program. Our design utilizes one SFQ processing module per physical qubit. Employing state-of-the-art SFQ synthesis tools, we show that the circuit area, power, and latency are within the constraints of contemporary quantum system designs. Under pure dephasing error models, the proposed accelerator and AQEC solution is able tomore »
In the near-term, hybrid quantum-classical algorithms hold great potential for outperforming classical approaches. Understanding how these two computing paradigms work in tandem is critical for identifying areas where such hybrid algorithms could provide a quantum advantage. In this work, we study a QAOA-based quantum optimization approach by implementing the Variational Quantum Factoring (VQF) algorithm. We execute experimental demonstrations using a superconducting quantum processor, and investigate the trade off between quantum resources (number of qubits and circuit depth) and the probability that a given biprime is successfully factored. In our experiments, the integers 1099551473989, 3127, and 6557 are factored with 3, 4, and 5 qubits, respectively, using a QAOA ansatz with up to 8 layers and we are able to identify the optimal number of circuit layers for a given instance to maximize success probability. Furthermore, we demonstrate the impact of different noise sources on the performance of QAOA, and reveal the coherent error caused by the residual
Z Z-coupling between qubits as a dominant source of error in a near-term superconducting quantum processor.
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