Among individuals with psychotic disorders, paranoid ideation is common and associated with increased impairment, decreased quality of life, and a more pessimistic prognosis. Although accumulating research indicates negative affect is a key precipitant of paranoid ideation, the possible protective role of positive affect has not been examined. Further, despite the interpersonal nature of paranoid ideation, there are limited and inconsistent findings regarding how social context, perceptions, and motivation influence paranoid ideation in real-world contexts. In this pilot study, we used smartphone ecological momentary assessment to understand the relevance of hour-by-hour fluctuations in mood and social experience for paranoid ideation in adults with psychotic disorders. Multilevel modeling results indicated that greater negative affect is associated with higher concurrent levels of paranoid ideation and that it is marginally related to elevated levels of future paranoid ideation. In contrast, positive affect was unrelated to momentary experiences of paranoid ideation. More severe momentary paranoid ideation was also associated with an elevated desire to withdraw from social encounters, irrespective of when with familiar or unfamiliar others. These observations underscore the role of negative affect in promoting paranoid ideation and highlight the contribution of paranoid ideation to the motivation to socially withdraw in psychotic disorders.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Schizophrenia Bulletin Open
- Oxford University Press
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Toward Objective, Multifaceted Characterization of Psychotic Disorders: Lexical, Structural, and Disfluency Markers of Spoken LanguagePsychotic disorders are forms of severe mental illness characterized by abnormal social function and a general sense of disconnect with reality. The evaluation of such disorders is often complex, as their multifaceted nature is often difficult to quantify. Multimodal behavior analysis technologies have the potential to help address this need and supply timelier and more objective decision support tools in clinical settings. While written language and nonverbal behaviors have been previously studied, the present analysis takes the novel approach of examining the rarely-studied modality of spoken language of individuals with psychosis as naturally used in social, face-to-face interactions. Our analyses expose a series of language markers associated with psychotic symptom severity, as well as interesting interactions between them. In particular, we examine three facets of spoken language: (1) lexical markers, through a study of the function of words; (2) structural markers, through a study of grammatical fluency; and (3) disfluency markers, through a study of dialogue self-repair. Additionally, we develop predictive models of psychotic symptom severity, which achieve significant predictive power on both positive and negative psychotic symptom scales. These results constitute a significant step toward the design of future multimodal clinical decision support tools for computational phenotyping of mentalmore »
Real-World Exploration Increases Across Adolescence and Relates to Affect, Risk Taking, and Social Connectivity
Cross-species research suggests that exploratory behaviors increase during adolescence and relate to the social, affective, and risky behaviors characteristic of this developmental stage. However, how these typical adolescent behaviors manifest and relate in real-world settings remains unclear. Using geolocation tracking to quantify exploration—variability in daily movement patterns—over a 3-month period in 58 adolescents and adults (ages 13–27) in New York City, we investigated whether daily exploration varied with age and whether exploration related to social connectivity, risk taking, and momentary positive affect. In our cross-sectional sample, we found an association between daily exploration and age, with individuals near the transition to legal adulthood exhibiting the highest exploration levels. Days of higher exploration were associated with greater positive affect irrespective of age. Higher mean exploration was associated with greater social connectivity in all participants but was linked to higher risk taking selectively among adolescents. Our results highlight the interplay of exploration and socioemotional behaviors across development and suggest that societal norms may modulate their expression in naturalistic contexts.
Adolescents’ neural reactivity to parental criticism is associated with diminished happiness during daily interpersonal situations
The goal of this study was to examine the relation between real-world socio-emotional measures and neural activation to parental criticism, a salient form of social threat for adolescents. This work could help us understand why heightened neural reactivity to social threat consistently emerges as a risk factor for internalizing psychopathology in youth. We predicted that youth with higher reactivity to parental criticism (vs neutral comments) in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), amygdala and anterior insula would experience (i) less happiness in daily positive interpersonal situations and (ii) more sadness and anger in daily negative interpersonal situations. Participants (44 youth aged 11–16 years with a history of anxiety) completed a 10-day ecological momentary assessment protocol and a neuroimaging task in which they listened to audio clips of their parents’ criticism and neutral comments. Mixed-effects models tested associations between neural activation to critical (vs neutral) feedback and emotions in interpersonal situations. Youth who exhibited higher activation in the sgACC to parental criticism reported less happiness during daily positive interpersonal situations. No significant neural predictors of negative emotions (e.g. sadness and anger) emerged. These findings provide evidence of real-world correlates of neural reactivity to social threat that may have important clinical implications.
Psychotic Symptom, Mood, and Cognition-associated Multimodal MRI Reveal Shared Links to the Salience Network Within the Psychosis Spectrum Disorders
Schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SAD), and psychotic bipolar disorder share substantial overlap in clinical phenotypes, associated brain abnormalities and risk genes, making reliable diagnosis among the three illness challenging, especially in the absence of distinguishing biomarkers. This investigation aims to identify multimodal brain networks related to psychotic symptom, mood, and cognition through reference-guided fusion to discriminate among SZ, SAD, and BP.
Psychotic symptom, mood, and cognition were used as references to supervise functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fusion to identify multimodal brain networks for SZ, SAD, and BP individually. These features were then used to assess the ability in discriminating among SZ, SAD, and BP. We observed shared links to functional and structural covariation in prefrontal, medial temporal, anterior cingulate, and insular cortices among SZ, SAD, and BP, although they were linked with different clinical domains. The salience (SAN), default mode (DMN), and fronto-limbic (FLN) networks were the three identified multimodal MRI features within the psychosis spectrum disorders from psychotic symptom, mood, and cognition associations. In addition, using these networks, we can classify patients and controls and distinguish among SZ, SAD, and BP, including their first-degree relatives. The identified multimodal SAN may be informative regarding neural mechanismsmore »
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction occurs in cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders such as stroke. Opening of the BBB during a stroke has a negative impact on acute outcomes. We have recently demonstrated that miR-34a regulates the BBB by targeting cytochrome c (CYC)
in vitro. To investigate the role of miR-34a in a stroke, we purified primary cerebrovascular endothelial cells (pCECs) from mouse brains following 1 h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and measured real-time PCR to detect miR-34a levels. We demonstrate that the miR-34a levels are elevated in pCECs from tMCAO mice at the time point of BBB opening following 1 h tMCAO and reperfusion. Interestingly, knockout of miR-34a significantly reduces BBB permeability, alleviates disruption of tight junctions, and improves stroke outcomes compared to wild-type (WT) controls. CYC is decreased in the ischemic hemispheres and pCECs from WT but not in miR-34a−/−mice following stroke reperfusion. We further confirmed CYC is a target of miR-34a by a dural luciferase reporter gene assay in vitro. Our study provides the first description of miR-34a affecting stroke outcomes and may lead to discovery of new mechanisms and treatments for cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases such as stroke.