An acoustic plasmon mode in a graphene-dielectric-metal structure has recently been spotlighted as a superior platform for strong light-matter interaction. It originates from the coupling of graphene plasmon with its mirror image and exhibits the largest field confinement in the limit of a sub-nm-thick dielectric. Although recently detected in the far-field regime, optical near-fields of this mode are yet to be observed and characterized. Here, we demonstrate a direct optical probing of the plasmonic fields reflected by the edges of graphene via near-field scattering microscope, revealing a relatively small propagation loss of the mid-infrared acoustic plasmons in our devices that allows for their real-space mapping at ambient conditions even with unprotected, large-area graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. We show an acoustic plasmon mode that is twice as confined and has 1.4 times higher figure of merit in terms of the normalized propagation length compared to the graphene surface plasmon under similar conditions. We also investigate the behavior of the acoustic graphene plasmons in a periodic array of gold nanoribbons. Our results highlight the promise of acoustic plasmons for graphene-based optoelectronics and sensing applications.
The past decade has witnessed a rapid growth of graphene plasmonics and their applications in different fields. Compared with conventional plasmonic materials, graphene enables highly confined plasmons with much longer lifetimes. Moreover, graphene plasmons work in an extended wavelength range, i.e., mid-infrared and terahertz regime, overlapping with the fingerprints of most organic and biomolecules, and have broadened their applications towards plasmonic biological and chemical sensors. In this review, we discuss intrinsic plasmonic properties of graphene and strategies both for tuning graphene plasmons as well as achieving higher performance by integrating graphene with plasmonic nanostructures. Next, we survey applications of graphene and graphene-hybrid materials in biosensors, chemical sensors, optical sensors, and sensors in other fields. Lastly, we conclude this review by providing a brief outlook and challenges of the field. Through this review, we aim to provide an overall picture of graphene plasmonic sensing and to suggest future trends of development of graphene plasmonics.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Springer Science + Business Media
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Nano Convergence
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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