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Title: SmartDet: Context-Aware Dynamic Control of Edge Task Offloading for Mobile Object Detection
Mobile devices such as drones and autonomous vehicles increasingly rely on object detection (OD) through deep neural networks (DNNs) to perform critical tasks such as navigation, target-tracking and surveillance, just to name a few. Due to their high complexity, the execution of these DNNs requires excessive time and energy. Low-complexity object tracking (OT) is thus used along with OD, where the latter is periodically applied to generate "fresh" references for tracking. However, the frames processed with OD incur large delays, which does not comply with real-time applications requirements. Offloading OD to edge servers can mitigate this issue, but existing work focuses on the optimization of the offloading process in systems where the wireless channel has a very large capacity. Herein, we consider systems with constrained and erratic channel capacity, and establish parallel OT (at the mobile device) and OD (at the edge server) processes that are resilient to large OD latency. We propose Katch-Up, a novel tracking mechanism that improves the system resilience to excessive OD delay. We show that this technique greatly improves the quality of the reference available to tracking, and boosts performance up to 33%. However, while Katch-Up significantly improves performance, it also increases the computing load of the mobile device. Hence, we design SmartDet, a low-complexity controller based on deep reinforcement learning (DRL) that learns to achieve the right trade-off between resource utilization and OD performance. SmartDet takes as input highly-heterogeneous context-related information related to the current video content and the current network conditions to optimize frequency and type of OD offloading, as well as Katch-Up utilization. We extensively evaluate SmartDet on a real-world testbed composed by a JetSon Nano as mobile device and a GTX 980 Ti as edge server, connected through a Wi-Fi link, to collect several network-related traces, as well as energy measurements. We consider a state-of-the-art video dataset (ILSVRC 2015 - VID) and state-of-the-art OD models (EfficientDet 0, 2 and 4). Experimental results show that SmartDet achieves an optimal balance between tracking performance – mean Average Recall (mAR) and resource usage. With respect to a baseline with full Katch-Up usage and maximum channel usage, we still increase mAR by 4% while using 50% less of the channel and 30% power resources associated with Katch-Up. With respect to a fixed strategy using minimal resources, we increase mAR by 20% while using Katch-Up on 1/3 of the frames.  more » « less
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Date Published:
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Page Range / eLocation ID:
357 to 366
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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