Two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures (HS) formed by transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers offer a unique platform for the study of intralayer and interlayer excitons as well as moiré-pattern-induced features. Particularly, the dipolar charge-transfer exciton comprising an electron and a hole, which are confined to separate layers of 2D semiconductors and Coulomb-bound across the heterojunction interface, has drawn considerable attention in the research community. On the one hand, it bears significance for optoelectronic devices, e.g. in terms of charge carrier extraction from photovoltaic devices. On the other hand, its spatially indirect nature and correspondingly high longevity among excitons as well as its out-of-plane dipole orientation render it attractive for excitonic Bose–Einstein condensation studies, which address collective coherence effects, and for photonic integration schemes with TMDCs. Here, we demonstrate the interlayer excitons’ out-of-plane dipole orientation through angle-resolved spectroscopy of the HS photoluminescence at cryogenic temperatures, employing a tungsten-based TMDC HS. Within the measurable light cone, the directly-obtained radiation profile of this species clearly resembles that of an in-plane emitter which deviates from that of the intralayer bright excitons as well as the other excitonic HS features recently attributed to artificial superlattices formed by moiré patterns.
Excitons are elementary optical excitation in semiconductors. The ability to manipulate and transport these quasiparticles would enable excitonic circuits and devices for quantum photonic technologies. Recently, interlayer excitons in 2D semiconductors have emerged as a promising candidate for engineering excitonic devices due to their long lifetime, large exciton binding energy, and gate tunability. However, the charge-neutral nature of the excitons leads to weak response to the in-plane electric field and thus inhibits transport beyond the diffusion length. Here, we demonstrate the directional transport of interlayer excitons in bilayer WSe2driven by the propagating potential traps induced by surface acoustic waves (SAW). We show that at 100 K, the SAW-driven excitonic transport is activated above a threshold acoustic power and reaches 20 μm, a distance at least ten times longer than the diffusion length and only limited by the device size. Temperature-dependent measurement reveals the transition from the diffusion-limited regime at low temperature to the acoustic field-driven regime at elevated temperature. Our work shows that acoustic waves are an effective, contact-free means to control exciton dynamics and transport, promising for realizing 2D materials-based excitonic devices such as exciton transistors, switches, and transducers up to room temperature.
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- Nature Communications
- Nature Publishing Group
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- National Science Foundation
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