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  1. Abstract

    Image sensors with internal computing capability enable in-sensor computing that can significantly reduce the communication latency and power consumption for machine vision in distributed systems and robotics. Two-dimensional semiconductors have many advantages in realizing such intelligent vision sensors because of their tunable electrical and optical properties and amenability for heterogeneous integration. Here, we report a multifunctional infrared image sensor based on an array of black phosphorous programmable phototransistors (bP-PPT). By controlling the stored charges in the gate dielectric layers electrically and optically, the bP-PPT’s electrical conductance and photoresponsivity can be locally or remotely programmed with 5-bit precision to implement an in-sensor convolutional neural network (CNN). The sensor array can receive optical images transmitted over a broad spectral range in the infrared and perform inference computation to process and recognize the images with 92% accuracy. The demonstrated bP image sensor array can be scaled up to build a more complex vision-sensory neural network, which will find many promising applications for distributed and remote multispectral sensing.

  2. Abstract

    Excitons are elementary optical excitation in semiconductors. The ability to manipulate and transport these quasiparticles would enable excitonic circuits and devices for quantum photonic technologies. Recently, interlayer excitons in 2D semiconductors have emerged as a promising candidate for engineering excitonic devices due to their long lifetime, large exciton binding energy, and gate tunability. However, the charge-neutral nature of the excitons leads to weak response to the in-plane electric field and thus inhibits transport beyond the diffusion length. Here, we demonstrate the directional transport of interlayer excitons in bilayer WSe2driven by the propagating potential traps induced by surface acoustic waves (SAW). We show that at 100 K, the SAW-driven excitonic transport is activated above a threshold acoustic power and reaches 20 μm, a distance at least ten times longer than the diffusion length and only limited by the device size. Temperature-dependent measurement reveals the transition from the diffusion-limited regime at low temperature to the acoustic field-driven regime at elevated temperature. Our work shows that acoustic waves are an effective, contact-free means to control exciton dynamics and transport, promising for realizing 2D materials-based excitonic devices such as exciton transistors, switches, and transducers up to room temperature.

  3. Abstract

    The interplay between band topology and magnetism can give rise to exotic states of matter. For example, magnetically doped topological insulators can realize a Chern insulator that exhibits quantized Hall resistance at zero magnetic field. While prior works have focused on ferromagnetic systems, little is known about band topology and its manipulation in antiferromagnets. Here, we report that MnBi2Te4is a rare platform for realizing a canted-antiferromagnetic (cAFM) Chern insulator with electrical control. We show that the Chern insulator state with Chern numberC = 1 appears as the AFM to canted-AFM phase transition happens. The Chern insulator state is further confirmed by observing the unusual transition of theC = 1 state in the cAFM phase to theC = 2 orbital quantum Hall states in the magnetic field induced ferromagnetic phase. Near the cAFM-AFM phase boundary, we show that the dissipationless chiral edge transport can be toggled on and off by applying an electric field alone. We attribute this switching effect to the electrical field tuning of the exchange gap alignment between the top and bottom surfaces. Our work paves the way for future studies on topological cAFM spintronics and facilitates the development of proof-of-concept Chern insulator devices.

  4. Abstract

    Flat band moiré superlattices have recently emerged as unique platforms for investigating the interplay between strong electronic correlations, nontrivial band topology, and multiple isospin ‘flavor’ symmetries. Twisted monolayer-bilayer graphene (tMBG) is an especially rich system owing to its low crystal symmetry and the tunability of its bandwidth and topology with an external electric field. Here, we find that orbital magnetism is abundant within the correlated phase diagram of tMBG, giving rise to the anomalous Hall effect in correlated metallic states nearby most odd integer fillings of the flat conduction band, as well as correlated Chern insulator states stabilized in an external magnetic field. The behavior of the states at zero field appears to be inconsistent with simple spin and valley polarization for the specific range of twist angles we investigate, and instead may plausibly result from an intervalley coherent (IVC) state with an order parameter that breaks time reversal symmetry. The application of a magnetic field further tunes the competition between correlated states, in some cases driving first-order topological phase transitions. Our results underscore the rich interplay between closely competing correlated ground states in tMBG, with possible implications for probing exotic IVC ordering.

  5. Abstract

    As devices approach the single-nanoparticle scale, the rational assembly of nanomaterial heterojunctions remains a persistent challenge. While optical traps can manipulate objects in three dimensions, to date, nanoscale materials have been trapped primarily in aqueous solvents or vacuum. Here, we demonstrate the use of optical traps to manipulate, align, and assemble metal-seeded nanowire building blocks in a range of organic solvents. Anisotropic radiation pressure generates an optical torque that orients each nanowire, and subsequent trapping of aligned nanowires enables deterministic fabrication of arbitrarily long heterostructures of periodically repeating bismuth-nanocrystal/germanium-nanowire junctions. Heat transport calculations, back-focal-plane interferometry, and optical images reveal that the bismuth nanocrystal melts during trapping, facilitating tip-to-tail “nanosoldering” of the germanium nanowires. These bismuth-semiconductor interfaces may be useful for quantum computing or thermoelectric applications. In addition, the ability to trap nanostructures in oxygen- and water-free organic media broadly expands the library of materials available for optical manipulation and single-particle spectroscopy.

  6. Abstract Electronic correlation is of fundamental importance to high temperature superconductivity. While the low energy electronic states in cuprates are dominantly affected by correlation effects across the phase diagram, observation of correlation-driven changes in fermiology amongst the iron-based superconductors remains rare. Here we present experimental evidence for a correlation-driven reconstruction of the Fermi surface tuned independently by two orthogonal axes of temperature and Se/Te ratio in the iron chalcogenide family FeTe 1− x Se x . We demonstrate that this reconstruction is driven by the de-hybridization of a strongly renormalized d x y orbital with the remaining itinerant iron 3 d orbitals in the emergence of an orbital-selective Mott phase. Our observations are further supported by our theoretical calculations to be salient spectroscopic signatures of such a non-thermal evolution from a strongly correlated metallic phase into an orbital-selective Mott phase in d x y as Se concentration is reduced.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  7. Abstract The interplay between a multitude of electronic, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom underlies the complex phase diagrams of quantum materials. Layer stacking in van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures is responsible for exotic electronic and magnetic properties, which inspires stacking control of two-dimensional magnetism. Beyond the interplay between stacking order and interlayer magnetism, we discover a spin-shear coupling mechanism in which a subtle shear of the atomic layers can have a profound effect on the intralayer magnetic order in a family of vdW antiferromagnets. Using time-resolved X-ray diffraction and optical linear dichroism measurements, interlayer shear is identified as the primary structural degree of freedom that couples with magnetic order. The recovery times of both shear and magnetic order upon optical excitation diverge at the magnetic ordering temperature with the same critical exponent. The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory shows that this concurrent critical slowing down arises from a linear coupling of the interlayer shear to the magnetic order, which is dictated by the broken mirror symmetry intrinsic to the monoclinic stacking. Our results highlight the importance of interlayer shear in ultrafast control of magnetic order via spin-mechanical coupling.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  8. Abstract A Chern insulator is a two-dimensional material that hosts chiral edge states produced by the combination of topology with time reversal symmetry breaking. Such edge states are perfect one-dimensional conductors, which may exist not only on sample edges, but on any boundary between two materials with distinct topological invariants (or Chern numbers). Engineering of such interfaces is highly desirable due to emerging opportunities of using topological edge states for energy-efficient information transmission. Here, we report a chiral edge-current divider based on Chern insulator junctions formed within the layered topological magnet MnBi 2 Te 4 . We find that in a device containing a boundary between regions of different thickness, topological domains with different Chern numbers can coexist. At the domain boundary, a Chern insulator junction forms, where we identify a chiral edge mode along the junction interface. We use this to construct topological circuits in which the chiral edge current can be split, rerouted, or switched off by controlling the Chern numbers of the individual domains. Our results demonstrate MnBi 2 Te 4 as an emerging platform for topological circuits design.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
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  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 23, 2023