skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, April 12 until 2:00 AM ET on Saturday, April 13 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Coincidence ion pair production (cipp) spectroscopy of diiodine
Coincidence ion pair production (I + + I − ) (cipp) spectra of I 2 were recorded in a double imaging coincidence experiment in the one-photon excitation region of 71 600–74 000 cm −1 . The I + + I − coincidence signal shows vibrational band head structure corresponding to iodine molecule Rydberg states crossing over to ion-pair (I + I − ) potential curves above the dissociation limit. The band origin ( ν 0 ), vibrational wavenumber ( ω e ) and anharmonicity constants ( ω e x e ) were determined for the identified Rydberg states. The analysis revealed a number of previously unidentified states and a reassignment of others following a discrepancy in previous assignments. Since the ion pair production threshold is well established, the electric field-dependent spectral intensities were used to derive the cutoff energy in the transitions to the rotational levels of the 7pσ(1/2) ( v ′ = 3) state.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1665464
NSF-PAR ID:
10382705
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Volume:
24
Issue:
29
ISSN:
1463-9076
Page Range / eLocation ID:
17569 to 17576
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    Coincidence ion pair production (cipp) spectra of F 2 were recorded on the DELICIOUS III coincidence spectrometer in the one-photon excitation region of 125 975–126 210 cm −1 . The F + + F − signal shows a rotational band head structure, corresponding to F 2 Rydberg states crossing over to the ion pair production surface. Spectral simulation and quantum defect analysis allowed the characterization of five new molecular Rydberg states (F 2 **): one Π and four Σ states. The lowest-energy Rydberg state spectrum observed ( T 0 = 125 999 cm −1 ) lacked some of the predicted rotational structure, which allowed an accurate determination of the ion pair production threshold of 15.6229 4 ± 0.0004 3 eV. Using the well-known atomic fluorine ionization energy and electron affinity, this number leads to a ground state F–F dissociation energy of 1.6012 9 ± 0.0004 4 eV. Photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) experiments were also carried out on F 2 and the dissociative photoionization threshold to F + + F was determined as 19.0242 ± 0.0006 eV. Using the atomic fluorine ionization energy, this can be converted to an F 2 dissociation energy of 1.6013 2 ± 0.0006 2 eV, further confirming the cipp-derived value above. Because the two experiments were independently energy-calibrated, they can be averaged to 1.6013 0 ± 0.0003 6 eV and this value can be used to derive the fluorine atom's 0 K heat of formation as 77.25 1 ± 0.01 7 kJ mol −1 . This latter is in excellent agreement with the latest Active Thermochemical Table (ATcT) value but improves its accuracy by almost a factor of three. 
    more » « less
  2. Ion time-of-flight velocity-map imaging was used to measure the kinetic-energy distributions of the I2 ion-pair fragments formed after photoexcitation of Ar⋯I2 complexes to intermolecular vibrational levels bound within the Ar + I2 (E, vE = 0–2) potential energy surfaces. The kinetic-energy distributions of the I2 products indicate that complexes in the Ar⋯I2 (E, vE) levels preferentially dissociate into I2 in the D and β ion-pair states with no change in I2 vibrational excitation. The energetics of the levels prepared suggest that there is a non-adiabatic coupling of the initially prepared levels with the continuum of states lying above the Ar + I2 (D, vD = vE) and Ar + I2 (β, vβ = vE) dissociation limits. The angular anisotropies of the I2 product signals collected for many of the Ar⋯I2 (E, vE) levels have maxima parallel to the laser polarization axis. This contradicts expectations for the prompt dissociation of complexes with T-shaped geometries, which would result in images with maxima perpendicular to the polarization axis. These anisotropies suggest that there is a perturbation of the transition moment in these clusters or there are additional intermolecular interactions, likely those sampled while traversing above the attractive wells of the lower-energy potentials during dissociation. I2 (D′, vD′) products are also identified when preparing several of the low-lying levels localized in the T-shaped well of the Ar + I2 (E, vE = 0–2) potentials, and they are formed in multiple νD′ vibrational levels spanning energy ranges up to 500 cm−1. 
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    Photoelectron–photofragment coincidence spectroscopy was used to study the dissociation dynamics of the conjugate bases of benzoic acid and p -coumaric acid. Upon photodetachment at 266 nm (4.66 eV) both aromatic carboxylates undergo decarboxylation, as well as the formation of stable carboxyl radicals. The key energetics are computed using high-level electronic structure methods. The dissociation dynamics of benzoate were dominated by a two-body DPD channel resulting in CO 2 + C 6 H 5 + e − , with a very small amount of stable C 6 H 5 CO 2 showing that the radical ground state is stable and the excited states are dissociative. For p -coumarate ( p -CA − ) the dominant channel is photodetachment resulting in a stable radical and a photoelectron with electron kinetic energy (eKE) <2 eV. We also observed a minor two-body dissociative photodetachment (DPD) channel resulting in CO 2 + HOC 6 H 4 CHCH + e − , characterized by eKE <0.8 eV. Evidence was also found for a three-body ionic photodissociation channel producing HOC 6 H 5 + HCC − + CO 2 . The ion beam contained both the phenolate and carboxylate isomers of p -CA − , but DPD only occurred from the carboxylate form. For both species DPD is seen from the first and second excited states of the radical, where vibrational excitation is required for decarboxylation from the first excited radical state. 
    more » « less
  4. Acetaldehyde cations (CH 3 CHO + ) were prepared using single-photon vacuum ultraviolet ionization of CH 3 CHO in a molecular beam and the fragmentation dynamics explored over the photolysis wavelength range 390–210 nm using velocity-map ion imaging and photofragment yield (PHOFY) spectroscopy. Four fragmentation channels are characterized: CH 3 CHO + → C 2 H 3 O + + H (I), CH 3 CHO + → HCO + + CH 3 (II), CH 3 CHO + → CH 3 + + HCO (III), CH 3 CHO + → CH 4 + + CO (IV). Channels (I), (II), and (IV) are observed across the full photolysis wavelength range while channel (III) is observed only at λ < 317 nm. Maximum fragment ion yields are obtained at ∼250 nm. Ion images were recorded over the range 316–228 nm, which corresponds to initial excitation to the B̃ 2 A′ and C̃ 2 A′ states of CH 3 CHO + . The speed and angular distributions are distinctly different for each detected ion and show evidence of both statistical and dynamical fragmentation pathways. At longer wavelengths, fragmentation via channel (I) leads to modest translational energies ( E T ), consistent with dissociation over a small barrier and production of highly internally excited CH 3 CO + . Additional components with E INT greater than the CH 3 CO + secondary dissociation threshold appear at shorter wavelengths and are assigned to fragmentation products of vinyl alcohol cation or oxirane cation formed by isomerization of energized CH 3 CHO + . The E T distribution observed for channel (III) products peaks at zero but is notably colder than that predicted by phase space theory, particularly at longer photolysis wavelengths. The colder-than-statistical E T distributions are attributed to contributions from secondary fragmentation of energized CH 3 CO + formed via channel (I), which are attenuated by CH 3 CHO + isomerization at shorter wavelengths. Fragmentation via channels (II) and (IV) results in qualitatively similar outcomes, with evidence of isotropic statistical components at low- E T and anisotropic components due to excited state dynamics at higher E T . 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    We measure the thermal electron energization in 1D and 2D particle-in-cell simulations of quasi-perpendicular, low-beta (βp= 0.25) collisionless ion–electron shocks with mass ratiomi/me= 200, fast Mach numberMms=1–4, and upstream magnetic field angleθBn= 55°–85° from the shock normalnˆ. It is known that shock electron heating is described by an ambipolar,B-parallel electric potential jump, Δϕ, that scales roughly linearly with the electron temperature jump. Our simulations haveΔϕ/(0.5miush2)0.1–0.2 in units of the pre-shock ions’ bulk kinetic energy, in agreement with prior measurements and simulations. Different ways to measureϕ, including the use of de Hoffmann–Teller frame fields, agree to tens-of-percent accuracy. Neglecting off-diagonal electron pressure tensor terms can lead to a systematic underestimate ofϕin our low-βpshocks. We further focus on twoθBn= 65° shocks: aMs=4(MA=1.8) case with a long, 30diprecursor of whistler waves alongnˆ, and aMs=7(MA=3.2) case with a shorter, 5diprecursor of whistlers oblique to bothnˆandB;diis the ion skin depth. Within the precursors,ϕhas a secular rise toward the shock along multiple whistler wavelengths and also has localized spikes within magnetic troughs. In a 1D simulation of theMs=4,θBn= 65° case,ϕshows a weak dependence on the electron plasma-to-cyclotron frequency ratioωpece, andϕdecreases by a factor of 2 asmi/meis raised to the true proton–electron value of 1836.

     
    more » « less