skip to main content


Title: Methods for Host-based Intrusion Detection with Deep Learning
Host-based Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDS) automatically detect events that indicate compromise by adversarial applications. HIDS are generally formulated as analyses of sequences of system events such as bash commands or system calls. Anomaly-based approaches to HIDS leverage models of normal (a.k.a. baseline) system behavior to detect and report abnormal events and have the advantage of being able to detect novel attacks. In this article, we develop a new method for anomaly-based HIDS using deep learning predictions of sequence-to-sequence behavior in system calls. Our proposed method, called the ALAD algorithm, aggregates predictions at the application level to detect anomalies. We investigate the use of several deep learning architectures, including WaveNet and several recurrent networks. We show that ALAD empowered with deep learning significantly outperforms previous approaches. We train and evaluate our models using an existing dataset, ADFA-LD, and a new dataset of our own construction, PLAID. As deep learning models are black box in nature, we use an alternate approach, allotaxonographs, to characterize and understand differences in baseline vs. attack sequences in HIDS datasets such as PLAID.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1718083
NSF-PAR ID:
10386265
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Digital Threats: Research and Practice
Volume:
2
Issue:
4
ISSN:
2692-1626
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1 to 29
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Our brains are, “prediction machines”, where we are continuously comparing our surroundings with predictions from internal models generated by our brains. This is demonstrated by observing our basic low level sensory systems and how they predict environmental changes as we move through space and time. Indeed, even at higher cognitive levels, we are able to do prediction. We can predict how the laws of physics affect people, places, and things and even predict the end of someone’s sentence. In our work, we sought to create an artificial model that is able to mimic early, low level biological predictive behavior in a computer vision system. Our predictive vision model uses spatiotemporal sequence memories learned from deep sparse coding. This model is implemented using a biologically inspired architecture: one that utilizes sequence memories, lateral inhibition, and top-down feed- back in a generative framework. Our model learns the causes of the data in a completely unsupervised manner, by simply observing and learning about the world. Spatiotemporal features are learned by minimizing a reconstruction error convolved over space and time, and can subsequently be used for recognition, classification, and future video prediction. Our experiments show that we are able to accurately predict what will happen in the future; furthermore, we can use our predictions to detect anomalous, unexpected events in both synthetic and real video sequences. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Detection of deception attacks is pivotal to ensure the safe and reliable operation of cyber-physical systems (CPS). Detection of such attacks needs to consider time-series sequences and is very challenging especially for autonomous vehicles that rely on high-dimensional observations from camera sensors. The paper presents an approach to detect deception attacks in real-time utilizing sensor observations, with a special focus on high-dimensional observations. The approach is based on inductive conformal anomaly detection (ICAD) and utilizes a novel generative model which consists of a variational autoencoder (VAE) and a recurrent neural network (RNN) that is used to learn both spatial and temporal features of the normal dynamic behavior of the system. The model can be used to predict the observations for multiple time steps, and the predictions are then compared with actual observations to efficiently quantify the nonconformity of a sequence under attack relative to the expected normal behavior, thereby enabling real-time detection of attacks using high-dimensional sequential data. We evaluate the approach empirically using two simulation case studies of an advanced emergency braking system and an autonomous car racing example, as well as a real-world secure water treatment dataset. The experiments show that the proposed method outperforms other detection methods, and in most experiments, both false positive and false negative rates are less than 10%. Furthermore, execution times measured on both powerful cloud machines and embedded devices are relatively short, thereby enabling real-time detection.

     
    more » « less
  3. Automatically locating vulnerable statements in source code is crucial to assure software security and alleviate developers' debugging efforts. This becomes even more important in today's software ecosystem, where vulnerable code can flow easily and unwittingly within and across software repositories like GitHub. Across such millions of lines of code, traditional static and dynamic approaches struggle to scale. Although existing machine-learning-based approaches look promising in such a setting, most work detects vulnerable code at a higher granularity – at the method or file level. Thus, developers still need to inspect a significant amount of code to locate the vulnerable statement(s) that need to be fixed. This paper presents Velvet, a novel ensemble learning approach to locate vulnerable statements. Our model combines graph-based and sequence-based neural networks to successfully capture the local and global context of a program graph and effectively understand code semantics and vulnerable patterns. To study Velvet's effectiveness, we use an off-the-shelf synthetic dataset and a recently published real-world dataset. In the static analysis setting, where vulnerable functions are not detected in advance, Velvet achieves 4.5× better performance than the baseline static analyzers on the real-world data. For the isolated vulnerability localization task, where we assume the vulnerability of a function is known while the specific vulnerable statement is unknown, we compare Velvet with several neural networks that also attend to local and global context of code. Velvet achieves 99.6% and 43.6% top-1 accuracy over synthetic data and real-world data, respectively, outperforming the baseline deep learning models by 5.3-29.0%. 
    more » « less
  4. Deep learning models have been studied to forecast human events using vast volumes of data, yet they still cannot be trusted in certain applications such as healthcare and disaster assistance due to the lack of interpretability. Providing explanations for event predictions not only helps practitioners understand the underlying mechanism of prediction behavior but also enhances the robustness of event analysis. Improving the transparency of event prediction models is challenging given the following factors: (i) multilevel features exist in event data which creates a challenge to cross-utilize different levels of data; (ii) features across different levels and time steps are heterogeneous and dependent; and (iii) static model-level interpretations cannot be easily adapted to event forecasting given the dynamic and temporal characteristics of the data. Recent interpretation methods have proven their capabilities in tasks that deal with graph-structured or relational data. In this paper, we present a Contextualized Multilevel Feature learning framework, CMF, for interpretable temporal event prediction. It consists of a predictor for forecasting events of interest and an explanation module for interpreting model predictions. We design a new context-based feature fusion method to integrate multiple levels of heterogeneous features. We also introduce a temporal explanation module to determine sequences of text and subgraphs that have crucial roles in a prediction. We conduct extensive experiments on several real-world datasets of political and epidemic events. We demonstrate that the proposed method is competitive compared with the state-of-the-art models while possessing favorable interpretation capabilities. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Smart grids integrate advanced information and communication technologies (ICTs) into traditional power grids for more efficient and resilient power delivery and management, but also introduce new security vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries to launch cyber attacks, causing severe consequences such as massive blackout and infrastructure damages. Existing machine learning-based methods for detecting cyber attacks in smart grids are mostly based on supervised learning, which need the instances of both normal and attack events for training. In addition, supervised learning requires that the training dataset includes representative instances of various types of attack events to train a good model, which is sometimes hard if not impossible. This paper presents a new method for detecting cyber attacks in smart grids using PMU data, which is based on semi-supervised anomaly detection and deep representation learning. Semi-supervised anomaly detection only employs the instances of normal events to train detection models, making it suitable for finding unknown attack events. A number of popular semi-supervised anomaly detection algorithms were investigated in our study using publicly available power system cyber attack datasets to identify the best-performing ones. The performance comparison with popular supervised algorithms demonstrates that semi-supervised algorithms are more capable of finding attack events than supervised algorithms. Our results also show that the performance of semi-supervised anomaly detection algorithms can be further improved by augmenting with deep representation learning. 
    more » « less