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Title: The biodesign studio: Constructions and reflections of high school youth on making with living media
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Author(s) / Creator(s):
Publisher / Repository:
Date Published:
Journal Name:
British Journal of Educational Technology
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 1116-1129
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  5. Abstract

    Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) incorporate pedagogical agents (PAs) to scaffold learners' self‐regulated learning (SRL) via prompts and feedback to promote learners' monitoring and regulation of their cognitive, affective, metacognitive and motivational processes to achieve their (sub)goals. This study examines PAs' effectiveness in scaffolding and teaching SRL during learning with MetaTutor, an ITS on the human circulatory system. Undergraduates (N = 118) were randomly assigned to a condition:Control Condition(i.e. learners could only self‐initiate SRL strategies) andPrompt and Feedback Condition(i.e. PAs prompted learners to engage in SRL). Learners' log‐file data captured when strategies were used, the initiator of the strategy (i.e. learner and PA), and the relevance of instructional content pages in relation to learner subgoals. While results showed that PAs were effective scaffolders of SRL in which they prompted learners to engage in SRL strategies more when content was relevant towards their subgoals and as time on page and task increased, there were mixed findings about the effectiveness of PAs as teachers of SRL. Findings show how production rules guiding PA prompts can improve their scaffolding and teaching of SRL across the learning task – through contextualizing SRL strategies to the instructional content and in relation to the relevance of the content to learners' subgoals.Practitioner notesWhat is already known about this topic

    Most learners struggle to efficiently and effectively use self‐regulated learning (SRL) strategies to attain goals and subgoals.

    There is a need for SRL to be scaffolded for learners to manage multiple goals and subgoals while learning about complex STEM topics.

    Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) typically incorporate pedagogical agents (PAs) to prompt learners to engage in SRL strategy and provide feedback.

    There are mixed findings on the effectiveness of PAs in scaffolding learners' SRL.

    What this paper adds

    We consider PAs not only scaffolders but also teachers of SRL.

    Results showed that while PAs encouraged the use of SRL strategies when the content was relevant to subgoals, they did not discourage the use of SRL strategies when the content was not relevant.

    Results for this study were mixed in their support of PAs as teachers of SRL.

    Learners increasingly depended on PAs to prompt SRL strategies as time on task progressed.

    Implications for practice and/or policy

    PAs are effective scaffolders of SRL with more research needed to understand their role as teachers of SRL.

    PA scaffolding is more essential as time on task progresses.

    When deploying specific cognitive and metacognitive SRL strategies, the relevance of the content to learners' subgoals should be taken into account.

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