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Performance of novel VUV-sensitive Silicon Photo-Multipliers for nEXO
Abstract Liquid xenon time projection chambers are promising detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0 $$\nu \beta \beta$$ ν β β ), due to their response uniformity, monolithic sensitive volume, scalability to large target masses, and suitability for extremely low background operations. The nEXO collaboration has designed a tonne-scale time projection chamber that aims to search for 0 $$\nu \beta \beta$$ ν β β of $$^{136}$$ 136 Xe with projected half-life sensitivity of $$1.35\times 10^{28}$$ 1.35 × 10 28  yr. To reach this sensitivity, the design goal for nEXO is $$\le$$ ≤ 1% energy resolution at the decay Q -value ( $$2458.07\pm 0.31$$ 2458.07 ± 0.31  keV). Reaching this resolution requires the efficient collection of both the ionization and scintillation produced in the detector. The nEXO design employs Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) to detect the vacuum ultra-violet, 175 nm scintillation light of liquid xenon. This paper reports on the characterization of the newest vacuum ultra-violet sensitive Fondazione Bruno Kessler VUVHD3 SiPMs specifically designed for nEXO, as well as new measurements on new test samples of previously characterised Hamamatsu VUV4 Multi Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs). Various SiPM and MPPC parameters, such as dark noise, gain, direct crosstalk, more »
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10387474
Journal Name:
The European Physical Journal C
Volume:
82
Issue:
12
ISSN:
1434-6052
3. Abstract Xenon dual-phase time projection chambers designed to search for weakly interacting massive particles have so far shown a relative energy resolution which degrades with energy above $$\sim$$ ∼ 200 keV due to the saturation effects. This has limited their sensitivity in the search for rare events like the neutrinoless double-beta decay of $$^{136} \hbox {Xe}$$ 136 Xe at its Q value, $$Q_{\beta \beta }\simeq 2.46\,\hbox {MeV}$$ Q β β ≃ 2.46 MeV . For the XENON1T dual-phase time projection chamber, we demonstrate that the relative energy resolution at $$1\,\sigma /\mu$$ 1 σ / μ is as low as ( $$0.80 \pm 0.02$$ 0.80 ± 0.02 ) % in its one-ton fiducial mass, and for single-site interactions at $$Q_{\beta \beta }$$ Q β β . We also present a new signal correction method to rectify the saturation effects of the signal readout system, resulting in more accurate position reconstruction and indirectly improving the energy resolution. The very good result achieved in XENON1T opens up new windows for the xenon dual-phase dark matter detectors to simultaneously search for other rare events.
The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is the first cryogenic experiment searching for$$0\nu \beta \beta$$$0\nu \beta \beta$decay that has been able to reach the one-tonne mass scale. The detector, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy, consists of an array of 988$${\mathrm{TeO}}_{2}$$${\mathrm{TeO}}_{2}$crystals arranged in a compact cylindrical structure of 19 towers. CUORE began its first physics data run in 2017 at a base temperature of about 10 mK and in April 2021 released its$$3{\mathrm{rd}}$$$3\mathrm{rd}$result of the search for$$0\nu \beta \beta$$$0\nu \beta \beta$, corresponding to a tonne-year of$$\mathrm{TeO}_{2}$$${\mathrm{TeO}}_{2}$exposure. This is the largest amount of data ever acquired with a solid state detector and the most sensitive measurement of$$0\nu \beta \beta$$$0\nu \beta \beta$decay in$${}^{130}\mathrm{Te}$$${}^{130}\mathrm{Te}$ever conducted . We present the current status of CUORE search for$$0\nu \beta \beta$$$0\nu \beta \beta$with the updated statistics of one tonne-yr. We finally give an update of the CUORE background model and the measurement of the$${}^{130}\mathrm{Te}$$${}^{130}\mathrm{Te}$$$2\nu \beta \beta$$$2\nu \beta \beta$decay half-life and decay to excited states of$${}^{130}\mathrm{Xe}$$${}^{130}\mathrm{Xe}$, studies performed using an exposure of 300.7 kg yr.