- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- e124 to e124
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Abstract Background Every tumor is composed of heterogeneous clones, each corresponding to a distinct subpopulation of cells that accumulated different types of somatic mutations, ranging from single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) to copy-number aberrations (CNAs). As the analysis of this intra-tumor heterogeneity has important clinical applications, several computational methods have been introduced to identify clones from DNA sequencing data. However, due to technological and methodological limitations, current analyses are restricted to identifying tumor clones only based on either SNVs or CNAs, preventing a comprehensive characterization of a tumor’s clonal composition. Results To overcome these challenges, we formulate the identification of clones in terms of both SNVs and CNAs as a integration problem while accounting for uncertainty in the input SNV and CNA proportions. We thus characterize the computational complexity of this problem and we introduce PACTION (PArsimonious Clone Tree integratION), an algorithm that solves the problem using a mixed integer linear programming formulation. On simulated data, we show that tumor clones can be identified reliably, especially when further taking into account the ancestral relationships that can be inferred from the input SNVs and CNAs. On 49 tumor samples from 10 prostate cancer patients, our integration approach provides a higher resolution view ofmore »
INTRODUCTION Transposable elements (TEs), repeat expansions, and repeat-mediated structural rearrangements play key roles in chromosome structure and species evolution, contribute to human genetic variation, and substantially influence human health through copy number variants, structural variants, insertions, deletions, and alterations to gene transcription and splicing. Despite their formative role in genome stability, repetitive regions have been relegated to gaps and collapsed regions in human genome reference GRCh38 owing to the technological limitations during its development. The lack of linear sequence in these regions, particularly in centromeres, resulted in the inability to fully explore the repeat content of the human genome in the context of both local and regional chromosomal environments. RATIONALE Long-read sequencing supported the complete, telomere-to-telomere (T2T) assembly of the pseudo-haploid human cell line CHM13. This resource affords a genome-scale assessment of all human repetitive sequences, including TEs and previously unknown repeats and satellites, both within and outside of gaps and collapsed regions. Additionally, a complete genome enables the opportunity to explore the epigenetic and transcriptional profiles of these elements that are fundamental to our understanding of chromosome structure, function, and evolution. Comparative analyses reveal modes of repeat divergence, evolution, and expansion or contraction with locus-level resolution. RESULTS We implementedmore »
Comprehensive characterization and clinical relevance of the SWI/SNF copy number aberrations across human cancers
Alterations in genes encoding chromatin regulatory proteins are prevalent in cancers and may confer oncogenic properties and molecular changes linked to therapy resistance. However, the impact of copy number alterations (CNAs) of the SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) complex on the oncogenic and immunologic properties has not been systematically explored across human cancer types.
We comprehensively analyzed the genomic, transcriptomic and clinical data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset across 33 solid cancers.
CNAs of the SWI/SNF components were identified in more than 25% of all queried cancers, and tumors harboring SWI/SNF CNAs demonstrated a worse overall survival (OS) than others in several cancer types. Mechanistically, the SCNA events in the SWI/SNF complex are correlated with dysregulated genomic features and oncogenic pathways, including the cell cycle, DNA damage and repair. Notably, the SWI/SNF CNAs were associated with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) and improved clinical outcomes of platinum-treated ovarian cancer. Furthermore, we observed distinct immune infiltrating patterns and immunophenotypes associated with SWI/SNF CNAs in different cancer types.
The CNA events of the SWI/SNF components are a key process linked to oncogenesis, immune infiltration and therapeutic responsiveness across human cancers.
Comparison of Two Aspergillus oryzae Genomes From Different Clades Reveals Independent Evolution of Alpha-Amylase Duplication, Variation in Secondary Metabolism Genes, and Differences in Primary MetabolismMicrobes (bacteria, yeasts, molds), in addition to plants and animals, were domesticated for their roles in food preservation, nutrition and flavor. Aspergillus oryzae is a domesticated filamentous fungal species traditionally used during fermentation of Asian foods and beverage, such as sake, soy sauce, and miso. To date, little is known about the extent of genome and phenotypic variation of A. oryzae isolates from different clades. Here, we used long-read Oxford Nanopore and short-read Illumina sequencing to produce a highly accurate and contiguous genome assemble of A. oryzae 14160, an industrial strain from China. To understand the relationship of this isolate, we performed phylogenetic analysis with 90 A. oryzae isolates and 1 isolate of the A. oryzae progenitor, Aspergillus flavus . This analysis showed that A. oryzae 14160 is a member of clade A, in comparison to the RIB 40 type strain, which is a member of clade F. To explore genome variation between isolates from distinct A. oryzae clades, we compared the A. oryzae 14160 genome with the complete RIB 40 genome. Our results provide evidence of independent evolution of the alpha-amylase gene duplication, which is one of the major adaptive mutations resulting from domestication. Synteny analysis revealed that bothmore »
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