skip to main content


Title: Drag enhancement by the addition of weak waves to a wave-current boundary layer over bumpy walls
We present direct numerical simulation results of a wave-current boundary layer in a current-dominated flow regime (wave driven to steady current ratio of 0.34) over bumpy walls for hydraulically smooth flow conditions (wave orbital excursion to roughness ratio of 10). The turbulent, wave-current channel flow has a friction Reynolds number of $350$ and a wave Reynolds number of $351$ . At the lower boundary, a bumpy wall is introduced with a direct forcing immersed boundary method, while the top wall has a free-slip boundary condition. Despite the hydraulically smooth nature of the wave-driven flow, the phase variations of the turbulent statistics for the bumpy wall case were found to vary substantially when compared with the flat wall case. Results show that the addition of weak waves to a steady current over flat walls has a negligible effect on the turbulence or bottom drag. However, the addition of weak waves to a steady current over bumpy walls has a significant effect through enhancement of the Reynolds stress (RS) accompanied by a drag coefficient increase of $11\,\%$ relative to the steady current case. This enhancement occurs just below the top of the roughness elements during the acceleration portion of the wave cycle: Turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is subsequently transported above the roughness elements to a maximum height of roughly twice the turbulent Stokes length. We analyse the TKE and RS budgets to understand the mechanisms behind the alterations in the turbulence properties due to the bumpy wall. The results provide a mechanistic picture of the differences between bumpy and flat walls in wave-current turbulent boundary layers and illustrate the importance of bumpy features even in weakly energetic wave conditions.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1736668
NSF-PAR ID:
10389917
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Volume:
947
ISSN:
0022-1120
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Highly-resolved, direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flows with sub- Kolmogorov grid resolution are performed to investigate the characteristics of wall-bounded turbulent flows in the presence of sinusoidal wall waviness. The wall waviness serves as a simplified model to study the effects of well-defined geometric parameters of roughness on the characteristics of wall-bounded turbulent flows. In this study, a two-dimensional wave profile with steepness ranging from 0.06 to 0.25 and wave amplitudes ranging from 9 to 36 wall units were considered. For the smooth and wavy-wall simulations, the Reynolds number based on the friction velocity was kept constant. To study the effects of wave amplitude and wavelength on turbulence, two-dimensional time and spanwise averaged distributions of the mean flow, turbulent kinetic energy, and Reynolds stresses as well as turbulent kinetic energy production and dissipation are examined. Furthermore, in order to provide a more direct comparison with the smooth-wall turbulent channel flow one-dimensional pro- files of these quantities are computed by averaging them over one wavelength of the wave profile. A strong effect of the wall-waviness and, in particular, the wave amplitude and wavelength on the characteristics of the turbulence was obtained. Wall waviness mainly affected the inner flow region while all recorded turbulent statistics collapsed in the outer flow region. Significant reductions in turbulent kinetic energy, production and dissipation were obtained with increasing wave amplitudes when reported in inner scale. While production is lower for all wavy wall cases considered here in comparison to the smooth wall, reducing the wavelength caused an increase in production and a decrease in dissipation. 
    more » « less
  2. Direct numerical simulations are performed for incompressible, turbulent channel flow over a smooth wall and different sinusoidal wall roughness configurations at a constant $Re_\tau = 720$ . Sinusoidal walls are used to study the effects of well-defined geometric features of roughness-amplitude, $a$ , and wavelength, $\lambda$ , on the flow. The flow in the near-wall region is strongly influenced by both $a$ and $\lambda$ . Establishing appropriate scaling laws will aid in understanding the effects of roughness and identifying the relevant physical mechanisms. Using inner variables and the roughness function to scale the flow quantities provides support for Townsend's hypothesis, but inner scaling is unable to capture the flow physics in the near-wall region. We provide modified scaling relations considering the dynamics of the shear layer and its interaction with the roughness. Although not a particularly surprising observation, this study provides clear evidence of the dependence of flow features on both $a$ and $\lambda$ . With these relations, we are able to collapse and/or align peaks for some flow quantities and, thus, capture the effects of surface roughness on turbulent flows even in the near-wall region. The shear-layer scaling supports the hypothesis that the physical mechanisms responsible for turbulent kinetic energy production in turbulent flows over rough walls are greatly influenced by the shear layer and its interaction with the roughness elements. Finally, a semiempirical model is developed to predict the contribution of pressure and skin friction drag on the roughness element based purely on its geometric parameters and the corresponding shear-layer velocity scale. 
    more » « less
  3. The role of solid obstacle surface roughness in turbulent convection in porous media is not well understood, even though it is frequently used for heat transfer enhancement in many applications. The focus of this paper is to systematically study the influence of solid obstacle surface roughness in porous media on the microscale flow physics and report its effect on macroscale drag and Nusselt number. The Reynolds-averaged flow field is numerically simulated using the realizable k-ε model for a flow through a periodic porous medium consisting of an in-line arrangement of square cylinders with square roughness particles on the cylinder surface. Two flow regimes are identified with respect to the surface roughness particle height—fine and coarse roughness regimes. The effect of the roughness particles in the fine roughness regime is limited to the near-wall boundary layer around the solid obstacle surface. In the coarse roughness regime, the roughness particles modify the microscale flow field in the entire pore space of the porous medium. In the fine roughness regime, the heat transfer from the rough solid obstacles to the fluid inside the porous medium is less than that from a smooth solid obstacle. In the coarse roughness regime, there is an enhancement in the heat transfer from the rough solid obstacle to the fluid inside the porous medium. Total drag reduction is also observed in the fine roughness regime for the smallest roughness particle height. The surface roughness particle spacing determines the fractional area of the solid obstacle surface covered by recirculating, reattached, and stagnating flow. As the roughness particle spacing increases, there are two competing factors for the heat transfer rate—increase due to more surface area covered by reattached flow and decrease due to fewer roughness particles on the solid obstacle surface. Decreasing the porosity and increasing the Reynolds number amplify the effect of the surface roughness on the microscale flow. The results suggest that heat transfer in porous media can be enhanced, if the increase in drag can be overcome. The results also show that the fine roughness regime, which is frequently encountered due to corrosion, is detrimental to the heat transfer performance of porous media. 
    more » « less
  4. We discuss the Onsager theory of wall-bounded turbulence, analysing the momentum dissipation anomaly hypothesized by Taylor. Turbulent drag laws observed with both smooth and rough walls imply ultraviolet divergences of velocity gradients. These are eliminated by a coarse-graining operation, filtering out small-scale eddies and windowing out near-wall eddies, thus introducing two arbitrary regularization length-scales. The regularized equations for resolved eddies correspond to the weak formulation of the Navier–Stokes equation and contain, in addition to the usual turbulent stress, also an inertial drag force modelling momentum exchange with unresolved near-wall eddies. Using an Onsager-type argument based on the principle of renormalization group invariance, we derive an upper bound on wall friction by a function of Reynolds number determined by the modulus of continuity of the velocity at the wall. Our main result is a deterministic version of Prandtl’s relation between the Blasius − 1 / 4 drag law and the 1/7 power-law profile of the mean streamwise velocity. At higher Reynolds, the von Kármán–Prandtl drag law requires instead a slow logarithmic approach of velocity to zero at the wall. We discuss briefly also the large-eddy simulation of wall-bounded flows and use of iterative renormalization group methods to establish universal statistics in the inertial sublayer. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Scaling the turbulence edifice (part 1)’. 
    more » « less
  5. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of compressible spatially-developing turbulent boundary layers (SDTBL) is performed at a Mach number of 2.5 and low/high Reynolds numbers over isothermal Zero-Pressure Gradient (ZPG) flat plates. Turbulent inflow information is generated via a dynamic rescaling-recycling approach (J. Fluid Mech., 670, pp. 581-605, 2011), which avoids the use of empirical correlations in the computation of inlet turbulent scales. The range of the low Reynolds number case is approximately 400-800, based on the momentum thickness, freestream velocity and wall viscosity. DNS at higher Reynolds numbers (~3,000, about four-fold larger) is also carried out with the purpose of analyzing the effect of Reynolds number on the transport phenomena in the supersonic regime. Additionally, low/high order flow statistics are compared with DNS of an incompressible isothermal ZPG boundary layer at similar low Reynolds numbers and the temperature regarded as a passive scalar. Peaks of turbulence intensities move closer to the wall as the Reynolds number increases in the supersonic flat plate. Furthermore, Reynolds shear stresses depict a much larger "plateau" (constant shear layer) at the highest Reynolds number considered in present study. 
    more » « less