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Title: Drag enhancement by the addition of weak waves to a wave-current boundary layer over bumpy walls
We present direct numerical simulation results of a wave-current boundary layer in a current-dominated flow regime (wave driven to steady current ratio of 0.34) over bumpy walls for hydraulically smooth flow conditions (wave orbital excursion to roughness ratio of 10). The turbulent, wave-current channel flow has a friction Reynolds number of $350$ and a wave Reynolds number of $351$ . At the lower boundary, a bumpy wall is introduced with a direct forcing immersed boundary method, while the top wall has a free-slip boundary condition. Despite the hydraulically smooth nature of the wave-driven flow, the phase variations of the turbulent statistics for the bumpy wall case were found to vary substantially when compared with the flat wall case. Results show that the addition of weak waves to a steady current over flat walls has a negligible effect on the turbulence or bottom drag. However, the addition of weak waves to a steady current over bumpy walls has a significant effect through enhancement of the Reynolds stress (RS) accompanied by a drag coefficient increase of $11\,\%$ relative to the steady current case. This enhancement occurs just below the top of the roughness elements during the acceleration portion of the wave cycle: Turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is subsequently transported above the roughness elements to a maximum height of roughly twice the turbulent Stokes length. We analyse the TKE and RS budgets to understand the mechanisms behind the alterations in the turbulence properties due to the bumpy wall. The results provide a mechanistic picture of the differences between bumpy and flat walls in wave-current turbulent boundary layers and illustrate the importance of bumpy features even in weakly energetic wave conditions.  more » « less
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Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Medium: X
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National Science Foundation
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