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Title: A pilot study of the Earable device to measure facial muscle and eye movement tasks among healthy volunteers
The Earable device is a behind-the-ear wearable originally developed to measure cognitive function. Since Earable measures electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and electrooculography (EOG), it may also have the potential to objectively quantify facial muscle and eye movement activities relevant in the assessment of neuromuscular disorders. As an initial step to developing a digital assessment in neuromuscular disorders, a pilot study was conducted to determine whether the Earable device could be utilized to objectively measure facial muscle and eye movements intended to be representative of Performance Outcome Assessments, (PerfOs) with tasks designed to model clinical PerfOs, referred to as mock-PerfO activities. The specific aims of this study were: To determine whether the Earable raw EMG, EOG, and EEG signals could be processed to extract features describing these waveforms; To determine Earable feature data quality, test re-test reliability, and statistical properties; To determine whether features derived from Earable could be used to determine the difference between various facial muscle and eye movement activities; and, To determine what features and feature types are important for mock-PerfO activity level classification. A total of N = 10 healthy volunteers participated in the study. Each study participant performed 16 mock-PerfOs activities, including talking, chewing, swallowing, eye more » closure, gazing in different directions, puffing cheeks, chewing an apple, and making various facial expressions. Each activity was repeated four times in the morning and four times at night. A total of 161 summary features were extracted from the EEG, EMG, and EOG bio-sensor data. Feature vectors were used as input to machine learning models to classify the mock-PerfO activities, and model performance was evaluated on a held-out test set. Additionally, a convolutional neural network (CNN) was used to classify low-level representations of the raw bio-sensor data for each task, and model performance was correspondingly evaluated and compared directly to feature classification performance. The model’s prediction accuracy on the Earable device’s classification ability was quantitatively assessed. Study results indicate that Earable can potentially quantify different aspects of facial and eye movements and may be used to differentiate mock-PerfO activities. Specially, Earable was found to differentiate talking, chewing, and swallowing tasks from other tasks with observed F1 scores >0.9. While EMG features contribute to classification accuracy for all tasks, EOG features are important for classifying gaze tasks. Finally, we found that analysis with summary features outperformed a CNN for activity classification. We believe Earable may be used to measure cranial muscle activity relevant for neuromuscular disorder assessment. Classification performance of mock-PerfO activities with summary features enables a strategy for detecting disease-specific signals relative to controls, as well as the monitoring of intra-subject treatment responses. Further testing is needed to evaluate the Earable device in clinical populations and clinical development settings. « less
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Li-Jessen, Nicole Yee-Key
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PLOS Digital Health
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National Science Foundation
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Using the offline decoder and postprocessor, the model performed at 36.23% sensitivity with 9.52 FAs per 24 hours. The trained model was then evaluated with the online modules. The current performance of the overall online system is 45.80% sensitivity with 28.14 FAs per 24 hours. Table 2 summarizes the performances of these systems. The performance of the online system deviates from the offline P1 model because the online postprocessor fails to combine the events as the seizure probability fluctuates during an event. The modules in the online system add a total of 11.1 seconds of delay for processing each second of the data, as shown in Figure 3. In practice, we also count the time for loading the model and starting the visualizer block. When we consider these facts, the system consumes 15 seconds to display the first hypothesis. The system detects seizure onsets with an average latency of 15 seconds. Implementing an automatic seizure detection model in real time is not trivial. We used a variety of techniques such as the file locking mechanism, multithreading, circular buffers, real-time event decoding, and signal-decision plotting to realize the system. A video demonstrating the system is available at: The final conference submission will include a more detailed analysis of the online performance of each module. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research reported in this publication was most recently supported by the National Science Foundation Partnership for Innovation award number IIP-1827565 and the Pennsylvania Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement Program (PA CURE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official views of any of these organizations. REFERENCES [1] A. Craik, Y. He, and J. L. Contreras-Vidal, “Deep learning for electroencephalogram (EEG) classification tasks: a review,” J. Neural Eng., vol. 16, no. 3, p. 031001, 2019. [2] A. C. Bridi, T. Q. Louro, and R. C. L. Da Silva, “Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients,” Rev. Lat. Am. Enfermagem, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 1034, 2014. [3] M. Golmohammadi, V. Shah, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Deep Learning Approaches for Automatic Seizure Detection from Scalp Electroencephalograms,” in Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology: Emerging Trends in Research and Applications, 1st ed., I. Obeid, I. Selesnick, and J. Picone, Eds. New York, New York, USA: Springer, 2020, pp. 233–274. [4] “CFM Olympic Brainz Monitor.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 17-Jul-2020]. [5] M. L. Scheuer, S. B. Wilson, A. Antony, G. Ghearing, A. Urban, and A. I. Bagic, “Seizure Detection: Interreader Agreement and Detection Algorithm Assessments Using a Large Dataset,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol., 2020. [6] A. Harati, M. Golmohammadi, S. Lopez, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Improved EEG Event Classification Using Differential Energy,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium, 2015, pp. 1–4. [7] V. Shah, C. Campbell, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Improved Spatio-Temporal Modeling in Automated Seizure Detection using Channel-Dependent Posteriors,” Neurocomputing, 2021. [8] W. Tatum, A. Husain, S. Benbadis, and P. Kaplan, Handbook of EEG Interpretation. New York City, New York, USA: Demos Medical Publishing, 2007. [9] D. P. Bovet and C. Marco, Understanding the Linux Kernel, 3rd ed. O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2005. [10] V. Shah et al., “The Temple University Hospital Seizure Detection Corpus,” Front. Neuroinform., vol. 12, pp. 1–6, 2018. [11] F. Pedregosa et al., “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” J. Mach. Learn. Res., vol. 12, pp. 2825–2830, 2011. [12] J. Gotman, D. Flanagan, J. Zhang, and B. Rosenblatt, “Automatic seizure detection in the newborn: Methods and initial evaluation,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 356–362, 1997.« less
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