Although there is mounting evidence indicating that the relative timing of predator and prey phenologies determines the outcome of trophic interactions, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how the environmental context (e.g., abiotic conditions) influences this relationship. Environmental conditions not only frequently drive shifts in phenologies, but they can also affect the very same processes that mediate the effects of phenological shifts on species interactions. Therefore, identifying how environmental conditions shape the effects of phenological shifts is key to predicting community dynamics across a heterogeneous landscape and how they will change with ongoing climate change in the future. Here I tested how environmental conditions shape the effects of phenological shifts by experimentally manipulating temperature, nutrient availability, and relative phenologies in two predator–prey freshwater systems (mole salamander–bronze frog vs. dragonfly larvae–leopard frog). This allowed me to (1) isolate the effects of phenological shifts and different environmental conditions; (2) determine how they interact; and (3) evaluate how consistent these patterns are across different species and environments. I found that delaying prey arrival dramatically increased predation rates, but these effects were contingent on environmental conditions and the predator system. Although nutrient addition and warming both significantly enhanced the effect of arrivalmore »
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Temperature and nutrient conditions modify the effects of phenological shifts in predator–prey communities
Reexamining the storage effect: Why temporal variation in abiotic factors seems unlikely to cause coexistence
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Plain Language Summarycan be found within the Supporting Information of this article.
Long‐term survey data reveal large predator and temperature effects on population growth of multiple zooplankton species
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Plain Language Summarycan be found within the Supporting Information of this article.