skip to main content

Title: Synthesis from Satisficing and Temporal Goals
Reactive synthesis from high-level specifications that combine hard constraints expressed in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) with soft constraints expressed by discounted sum (DS) rewards has applications in planning and reinforcement learning. An existing approach combines techniques from LTL synthesis with optimization for the DS rewards but has failed to yield a sound algorithm. An alternative approach combining LTL synthesis with satisficing DS rewards (rewards that achieve a threshold) is sound and complete for integer discount factors, but, in practice, a fractional discount factor is desired. This work extends the existing satisficing approach, presenting the first sound algorithm for synthesis from LTL and DS rewards with fractional discount factors. The utility of our algorithm is demonstrated on robotic planning domains.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence
Page Range / eLocation ID:
9679 to 9686
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    In this paper, we consider a temporal logic planning problem in which the objective is to find an infinite trajectory that satisfies an optimal selection from a set of soft specifications expressed in linear temporal logic (LTL) while nevertheless satisfying a hard specification expressed in LTL. Our previous work considered a similar problem in which linear dynamic logic for finite traces (LDL_f), rather than LTL, was used to express the soft constraints. In that work, LDL_f was used to impose constraints on finite prefixes of the infinite trajectory. By using LTL, one is able not only to impose constraints on the finite prefixes of the trajectory, but also to set `soft' goals across the entirety of the infinite trajectory. Our algorithm first constructs a product automaton, on which the planning problem is reduced to computing a lasso with minimum cost. Among all such lassos, it is desirable to compute a shortest one. Though we prove that computing such a shortest lasso is computationally hard, we also introduce an efficient greedy approach to synthesize short lassos nonetheless. We present two case studies describing an implementation of this approach, and report results of our experiment comparing our greedy algorithm with an optimal baseline. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) synthesis aims at automatically synthesizing a program that complies with desired properties expressed in LTL. Unfortunately it has been proved to be too difficult computationally to perform full LTL synthesis. There have been two success stories with LTL synthesis, both having to do with the form of the specification. The first is the GR(1) approach: use safety conditions to determine the possible transitions in a game between the environment and the agent, plus one powerful notion of fairness, Generalized Reactivity(1), or GR(1). The second, inspired by AI planning, is focusing on finite-trace temporal synthesis, with LTLf (LTL on finite traces) as the specification language. In this paper we take these two lines of work and bring them together. We first study the case in which we have an LTLf agent goal and a GR(1) assumption. We then add to the framework safety conditions for both the environment and the agent, obtaining a highly expressive yet still scalable form of LTL synthesis. 
    more » « less
  3. Context Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) has been used widely in verification. Its importance and popularity have only grown with the revival of temporal logic synthesis, and with new uses of LTL in robotics and planning activities. All these uses demand that the user have a clear understanding of what an LTL specification means. Inquiry Despite the growing use of LTL, no studies have investigated the misconceptions users actually have in understanding LTL formulas. This paper addresses the gap with a first study of LTL misconceptions. Approach We study researchers’ and learners’ understanding of LTL in four rounds (three written surveys, one talk-aloud) spread across a two-year timeframe. Concretely, we decompose “understanding LTL” into three questions. A person reading a spec needs to understand what it is saying, so we study the mapping from LTL to English. A person writing a spec needs to go in the other direction, so we study English to LTL. However, misconceptions could arise from two sources: a misunderstanding of LTL’s syntax or of its underlying semantics. Therefore, we also study the relationship between formulas and specific traces. Knowledge We find several misconceptions that have consequences for learners, tool builders, and designers of new property languages. These findings are already resulting in changes to the Alloy modeling language. We also find that the English to LTL direction was the most common source of errors; unfortunately, this is the critical “authoring” direction in which a subtle mistake can lead to a faulty system. We contribute study instruments that are useful for training learners (whether academic or industrial) who are getting acquainted with LTL, and we provide a code book to assist in the analysis of responses to similar-style questions. Grounding Our findings are grounded in the responses to our survey rounds. Round 1 used Quizius to identify misconceptions among learners in a way that reduces the threat of expert blind spots. Rounds 2 and 3 confirm that both additional learners and researchers (who work in formal methods, robotics, and related fields) make similar errors. Round 4 adds deep support for our misconceptions via talk-aloud surveys. Importance This work provides useful answers to two critical but unexplored questions: in what ways is LTL tricky and what can be done about it? Our survey instruments can serve as a starting point for other studies. 
    more » « less
  4. Prior work on automatic control synthesis for cyberphysical systems under logical constraints has primarily focused on environmental disturbances or modeling uncertainties, however, the impact of deliberate and malicious attacks has been less studied. In this paper, we consider a discrete-time dynamical system with a linear temporal logic (LTL) constraint in the presence of an adversary, which is modeled as a stochastic game. We assume that the adversary observes the control policy before choosing an attack strategy. We investigate two problems. In the first problem, we synthesize a robust control policy for the stochastic game that maximizes the probability of satisfying the LTL constraint. A value iteration based algorithm is proposed to compute the optimal control policy. In the second problem, we focus on a subclass of LTL constraints, which consist of an arbitrary LTL formula and an invariant constraint. We then investigate the problem of computing a control policy that minimizes the expected number of invariant constraint violations while maximizing the probability of satisfying the arbitrary LTL constraint. We characterize the optimality condition for the desired control policy. A policy iteration based algorithm is proposed to compute the control policy. We illustrate the proposed approaches using two numerical case studies. 
    more » « less
  5. In hierarchical planning for Markov decision processes (MDPs), temporal abstraction allows planning with macro-actions that take place at different time scale in the form of sequential composition. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to compositional reasoning and hierarchical planning for MDPs under co-safe temporal logic constraints. In addition to sequential composition, we introduce a composition of policies based on generalized logic composition: Given sub-policies for sub-tasks and a new task expressed as logic compositions of subtasks, a semi-optimal policy, which is optimal in planning with only sub-policies, can be obtained by simply composing sub-polices. Thus, a synthesis algorithm is developed to compute optimal policies efficiently by planning with primitive actions, policies for sub-tasks, and the compositions of sub-policies, for maximizing the probability of satisfying constraints specified in the fragment of co-safe temporal logic. We demonstrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method in stochastic planning examples with a single agent and multiple task specifications. 
    more » « less