Kinetic structures of electron diffusion regions (EDRs) under finite guide fields in magnetotail reconnection are reported. The EDRs with guide fields 0.14–0.5 (in unit of the reconnecting component) are detected by the Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft. The key new features include the following: (1) cold inflowing electrons accelerated along the guide field and demagnetized at the magnetic field minimum while remaining a coherent population with a low perpendicular temperature, (2) wave fluctuations generating strong perpendicular electron flows followed by alternating parallel flows inside the reconnecting current sheet under an intermediate guide field, and (3) gyrophase bunched electrons with high parallel speeds leaving the X‐line region. The normalized reconnection rates for the three EDRs range from 0.05 to 0.3. The measurements reveal that finite guide fields introduce new mechanisms to break the electron frozen‐in condition.
A multidimensional incoherent Thomson scattering diagnostic system capable of measuring electron temperature anisotropies at the level of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) is implemented on the PHAse Space MApping facility to investigate electron energization mechanisms during magnetic reconnection. This system incorporates two injection paths (perpendicular and parallel to the axial magnetic field) and two collection paths, providing four independent EVDF measurements along four velocity space directions. For strongly magnetized electrons, a 3D EVDF comprised of two characteristic electron temperatures perpendicular and parallel to the local magnetic field line is reconstructed from the four measured EVDFs. Validation of isotropic electrons in a single magnetic flux rope and a steadystate helicon plasma is presented.
more » « less Award ID(s):
 1902111
 NSFPAR ID:
 10394859
 Publisher / Repository:
 American Institute of Physics
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 Review of Scientific Instruments
 Volume:
 94
 Issue:
 2
 ISSN:
 00346748
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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Abstract 
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