Herein, we report on the synthesis of ultrasmall Pd nanoclusters (∼2 nm) protected by L‐cysteine [HOCOCH(NH2)CH2SH] ligands (Pdn(L‐Cys)m) and supported on the surfaces of CeO2, TiO2, Fe3O4, and ZnO nanoparticles for CO catalytic oxidation. The Pdn(L‐Cys)mnanoclusters supported on the reducible metal oxides CeO2, TiO2and Fe3O4exhibit a remarkable catalytic activity towards CO oxidation, significantly higher than the reported Pd nanoparticle catalysts. The high catalytic activity of the ligand‐protected clusters Pdn(L‐Cys)mis observed on the three reducible oxides where 100 % CO conversion occurs at 93–110 °C. The high activity is attributed to the ligand‐protected Pd nanoclusters where the L‐cysteine ligands aid in achieving monodispersity of the Pd clusters by limiting the cluster size to the active sub‐2‐nm region and decreasing the tendency of the clusters for agglomeration. In the case of the ceria support, a complete removal of the L‐cysteine ligands results in connected agglomerated Pd clusters which are less reactive than the ligand‐protected clusters. However, for the TiO2and Fe3O4supports, complete removal of the ligands from the Pdn(L‐Cys)mclusters leads to a slight decrease in activity where the T100%CO conversion occurs at 99 °C and 107 °C, respectively. The high porosity of the TiO2and Fe3O4supports appears to aid in efficient encapsulation of the bare Pdnnanoclusters within the mesoporous pores of the support.
Gold (Au)- and ceria (CeO2)-based catalysts are amongst the most active catalysts for the gas phase CO oxidation reaction. Nevertheless, nanosized Au and CeO2catalysts may encounter heat-induced sintering in thermochemical catalytic reactions. Herein, we report on the rational one-pot synthesis of ceria-reduced graphene oxide (CeO2-RGO) using a facile ethylenediamine (EDA)-assisted solvothermal method. Standalone RGO and free-standing CeO2were also prepared using the same EDA-assisted method for comparison. We then incorporated Au into the prepared samples by colloidal reduction and evaluated the catalytic activity of the different catalysts for CO oxidation. The RGO-supported CeO2surpassed the free-standing CeO2, exhibiting a 100% CO conversion at 285oC compared to 340oC in the case of CeO2. Interestingly, the RGO-supported Au/CeO2catalysts outperformed the Au/CeO2catalysts and achieved a 100% CO conversion at 76oC compared to 113oC in the case of Au/CeO2. Additionally, the Au/CeO2-RGO catalyst demonstrated remarkable room-temperature activity with simultaneous 72% CO conversion. This outstanding performance was attributed to the unique dispersion and size characteristics of the RGO-supported CeO2and Au catalysts in the ternary Au/CeO2-RGO nanocomposite, as revealed by TEM and XPS, among other techniques.more » « less
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- IOP Publishing
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Materials Research Express
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
In this report, CeO 2 and SiO 2 supported 1 wt% Ru catalysts were synthesized and studied for dry reforming of methane (DRM) by introducing non-thermal plasma (NTP) in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) fixed bed reactor. From quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) data, it is found that introducing non-thermal plasma in thermo-catalytic DRM promotes higher CH 4 and CO 2 conversion and syngas (CO + H 2 ) yield than those under thermal catalysis only conditions. According to the H 2 -TPR, CO 2 -TPD, and CO-TPD profiles, reducible CeO 2 supported Ru catalysts presented better activity compared to their irreducible SiO 2 supported Ru counterparts. For instance, the molar concentrations of CO and H 2 were 16% and 9%, respectively, for plasma-assisted thermo-catalytic DRM at 350 °C, while no apparent conversion was observed at the same temperature for thermo-catalytic DRM. Highly energetic electrons, ions, and radicals under non-equilibrium and non-thermal plasma conditions are considered to contribute to the activation of strong C–H bonds in CH 4 and C–O bonds in CO 2 , which significantly improves the CH 4 /CO 2 conversion during DRM reaction at low temperatures. At 450 °C, the 1 wt% Ru/CeO 2 nanorods sample showed the highest catalytic activity with 51% CH 4 and 37% CO 2 conversion compared to 1 wt% Ru/CeO 2 nanocubes (40% CH 4 and 30% CO 2 ). These results clearly indicate that the support shape and reducibility affect the plasma-assisted DRM reaction. This enhanced DRM activity is ascribed to the surface chemistry and defect structures of the CeO 2 nanorods support that can provide active surface facets, higher amounts of mobile oxygen and oxygen vacancy, and other surface defects.more » « less
Constructing single atom catalysts with fine-tuned coordination environments can be a promising strategy to achieve satisfactory catalytic performance. Herein, via a simple calcination temperature-control strategy, CeO2supported Pt single atom catalysts with precisely controlled coordination environments are successfully fabricated. The joint experimental and theoretical analysis reveals that the Pt single atoms on Pt1/CeO2prepared at 550 °C (Pt/CeO2-550) are mainly located at the edge sites of CeO2with a Pt–O coordination number of
ca. 5, while those prepared at 800 °C (Pt/CeO2-800) are predominantly located at distorted Ce substitution sites on CeO2terrace with a Pt–O coordination number of ca. 4. Pt/CeO2-550 and Pt/CeO2-800 with different Pt1-CeO2coordination environments exhibit a reversal of activity trend in CO oxidation and NH3oxidation due to their different privileges in reactants activation and H2O desorption, suggesting that the catalytic performance of Pt single atom catalysts in different target reactions can be maximized by optimizing their local coordination structures.
In this work, a Pt catalyst supported on an equimolar Al 2 O 3 –CeO 2 binary oxide (Pt–Al–Ce) was prepared and applied in photo-thermo-chemical dry reforming of methane (DRM) driven by concentrated solar irradiation. It was found that the Pt–Al–Ce catalyst showed good stability in DRM reactions and significant enhancements in H 2 and CO production rates compared with Pt/CeO 2 (Pt–Ce) and Pt/Al 2 O 3 (Pt–Al) catalysts. At a reaction temperature of 700 °C under 30-sun equivalent solar irradiation, the Pt–Al–Ce catalyst exhibits a stable DRM catalytic performance at a H 2 production rate of 657 mmol g −1 h −1 and a CO production rate of 666 mmol g −1 h −1 , with the H 2 /CO ratio almost equal to unity. These production rates and the H 2 /CO ratio were significantly higher than those obtained in the dark at the same temperature. The light irradiation was found to induce photocatalytic activities on Pt–Al–Ce and reduce the reaction activation energy. In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy ( in situ DRIFTS) was applied to identify the active intermediates in the photo-thermo-chemical DRM process, which were bidentate/monodentate carbonate, absorbed CO on Pt, and formate. The benefits of the binary Al 2 O 3 –CeO 2 substrate could be ascribed to Al 2 O 3 promoting methane dissociation while CeO 2 stabilized and eliminated possible coke formation, leading to high catalytic DRM activity and stability.more » « less
Co2C, an emerging catalyst for the conversion of syngas to oxygenates, shows support‐sensitive behavior that has not yet been fully explained. Here, we characterize Co catalysts modified with ZnO atomic layer deposition on SiO2, carbon, CeO2, and Al2O3supports. We find that under syngas conditions, ZnO‐promoted Co transforms into Co2C on SiO2, carbon, and CeO2, but not on Al2O3. Moreover, the support affects the extent of carburization: while the SiO2‐supported catalyst carburizes completely, carbon‐ and CeO2‐supported catalysts show incomplete conversion of Co to Co2C. These three catalysts also exhibit different oxygenate selectivities. In contrast, the modified Al2O3‐supported catalyst retains the Fischer‐Tropsch catalytic properties of metallic Co. By depositing increasing amounts of Al2O3by ALD on the SiO2support, decreasing Co2C formation and oxygenate selectivity occurs.
In‐situXANES reveals that Al2O3prevents Co2C formation by enabling the ZnO to restructure into ZnAl2O4during reduction. Thus, in addition to modifying the active catalyst phase, the promoter can also strongly interact with the support, significantly impacting catalyst performance.