skip to main content

Title: SN 2019ewu: A Peculiar Supernova with Early Strong Carbon and Weak Oxygen Features from a New Sample of Young SN Ic Spectra

With the advent of high-cadence, all-sky automated surveys, supernovae (SNe) are now discovered closer than ever to their dates of explosion. However, young premaximum light follow-up spectra of Type Ic SNe (SNe Ic), probably arising from the most-stripped massive stars, remain rare despite their importance. In this Letter, we present a set of 49 optical spectra observed with the Las Cumbres Observatory through the Global Supernova Project for 6 SNe Ic, including a total of 17 premaximum spectra, of which 8 are observed more than a week beforeV-band maximum light. This data set increases the total number of publicly available premaximum-light SN Ic spectra by 25%, and we provide publicly available SNID templates that will significantly aid in the fast identification of young SNe Ic in the future. We present a detailed analysis of these spectra, including Feii5169 velocity measurements, Oi7774 line strengths, and continuum shapes. We compare our results to published samples of stripped SNe in the literature and find one SN in our sample that stands out. SN 2019ewu has a unique combination of features for an SN Ic: an extremely blue continuum, high absorption velocities, a P Cygni–shaped feature almost 2 weeks before maximum light that TARDIS radiative transfer modeling attributes to Ciirather than Hα, and weak or nonexistent Oi7774 absorption feature until maximum light.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
1911225 1911151 2206657
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal Letters
Medium: X Size: Article No. L49
["Article No. L49"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We present observations of a peculiar hydrogen- and helium-poor stripped-envelope (SE) supernova (SN) 2020wnt, primarily in the optical and near-infrared (near-IR). Its peak absolute bolometric magnitude of −20.9 mag (Lbol, peak= (6.8 ± 0.3) × 1043erg s−1) and a rise time of 69 days are reminiscent of hydrogen-poor superluminous SNe (SLSNe I), luminous transients potentially powered by spinning-down magnetars. Before the main peak, there is a brief peak lasting <10 days post explosion, likely caused by interaction with circumstellar medium (CSM) ejected ∼years before the SN explosion. The optical spectra near peak lack a hot continuum and Oiiabsorptions, which are signs of heating from a central engine; they quantitatively resemble those of radioactivity-powered hydrogen/helium-poor Type Ic SESNe. At ∼1 yr after peak, nebular spectra reveal a blue pseudo-continuum and narrow Oirecombination lines associated with magnetar heating. Radio observations rule out strong CSM interactions as the dominant energy source at +266 days post peak. Near-IR observations at +200–300 days reveal carbon monoxide and dust formation, which causes a dramatic optical light-curve dip. Pair-instability explosion models predict slow light curve and spectral features incompatible with observations. SN 2020wnt is best explained as a magnetar-powered core-collapse explosion of a 28Mpre-SN star. The explosion kinetic energy is significantly larger than the magnetar energy at peak, effectively concealing the magnetar-heated inner ejecta until well after peak. SN 2020wnt falls into a continuum between normal SNe Ic and SLSNe I, and demonstrates that optical spectra at peak alone cannot rule out the presence of a central engine.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    We present photometric and spectroscopic data for the nearby Type I supernova (SN Ia) 2019eix (originally classified as an SN Ic), from the day of its discovery up to 100 days after maximum brightness. Before maximum light, SN 2019eix resembles a typical SN Ic, albeit lacking the usual Oifeature. Its light curve is similar to the typical SN Ic with decline rates (ΔM15,V= 0.84) and absolute magnitudeMV= −18.35. However, after maximum light, this SN has unusual spectroscopic features, a large degree of line blending, significant line blanketing in the blue (λ< 5000 Å), and strong Caiiabsorption features during and after peak brightness. These unusual spectral features are similar to models of subluminous thermonuclear explosions, specifically double-detonation models of SNe Ia. Photometrically, SN 2019eix appears to be somewhat brighter with slower decline rates than other double-detonation candidates. We modeled the spectra using the radiative-transfer codeTARDISusing SN 1994I (an SN Ic) as a base model to see whether we could reproduce the unusual features of SN 2019eix and found them to be consistent with the exception of the Oifeature. We also compared SN 2019eix with double-detonation models and found them to best match the observations of SN 2019eix, but failed to reproduce its full photometric and spectroscopic evolution.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Few published ultraviolet (UV) spectra exist for stripped-envelope supernovae and none to date for broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-bl). These objects have extremely high ejecta velocities and are the only supernova type directly linked to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present two epochs of HST/STIS spectra of the SN Ic-bl 2014ad, the first UV spectra for this class. We supplement this with 26 new epochs of ground-based optical spectra, augmenting a rich spectral time series. The UV spectra do not show strong features and are consistent with broadened versions of other SN Ic spectra observed in the UV. We measure Feii5169 Å velocities and show that SN 2014ad has even higher ejecta velocities than most SNe Ic both with and without observed GRBs. We construct models of the SN 2014ad UV+optical spectra usingtardis, a 1D Monte Carlo radiative-transfer spectral synthesis code. The models fit the data well at multiple epochs in the optical but underestimate the flux in the UV, likely due to simplifying assumptions. We find that high densities at high velocities are needed to reproduce the spectra, with ∼3Mof material atv> 22,000 km s−1, assuming spherical symmetry. Our nebular line fits suggest a steep density profile at low velocities. Together, these results imply a higher total ejecta mass than estimated from previous light-curve analysis and expected from theory. This may be reconciled by a flattening of the density profile at low velocity and extra emission near the center of the ejecta.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Multipeaked supernovae with precursors, dramatic light-curve rebrightenings, and spectral transformation are rare, but are being discovered in increasing numbers by modern night-sky transient surveys like the Zwicky Transient Facility. Here, we present the observations and analysis of SN 2023aew, which showed a dramatic increase in brightness following an initial luminous (−17.4 mag) and long (∼100 days) unusual first peak (possibly precursor). SN 2023aew was classified as a Type IIb supernova during the first peak but changed its type to resemble a stripped-envelope supernova (SESN) after the marked rebrightening. We present comparisons of SN 2023aew’s spectral evolution with SESN subtypes and argue that it is similar to SNe Ibc during its main peak. P-Cygni Balmer lines are present during the first peak, but vanish during the second peak’s photospheric phase, before Hαresurfaces again during the nebular phase. The nebular lines ([Oi], [Caii], Mgi], Hα) exhibit a double-peaked structure that hints toward a clumpy or nonspherical ejecta. We analyze the second peak in the light curve of SN 2023aew and find it to be broader than that of normal SESNe as well as requiring a very high56Ni mass to power the peak luminosity. We discuss the possible origins of SN 2023aew including an eruption scenario where a part of the envelope is ejected during the first peak and also powers the second peak of the light curve through interaction of the SN with the circumstellar medium.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2020bio, a double-peaked Type IIb supernova (SN) discovered within a day of explosion, primarily obtained by Las Cumbres Observatory and Swift. SN 2020bio displays a rapid and long-lasting initial decline throughout the first week of its light curve, similarly to other well-studied Type IIb SNe. This early-time emission is thought to originate from the cooling of the extended outer hydrogen-rich (H-rich) envelope of the progenitor star that is shock heated by the SN explosion. We compare SN 2020bio to a sample of other double-peaked Type IIb SNe in order to investigate its progenitor properties. Analytical model fits to the early-time emission give progenitor radius (≈100–1500R) and H-rich envelope mass (≈0.01–0.5M) estimates that are consistent with other Type IIb SNe. However, SN 2020bio displays several peculiarities, including (1) weak H spectral features indicating a greater amount of mass loss than other Type IIb progenitors; (2) an underluminous secondary light-curve peak that implies a small amount of synthesized56Ni (MNi≈0.02M); and (3) low-luminosity nebular [Oi] and interaction-powered nebular features. These observations are more consistent with a lower-mass progenitor (MZAMS≈ 12M) that was stripped of most of its H-rich envelope before exploding. This study adds to the growing diversity in the observed properties of Type IIb SNe and their progenitors.

    more » « less