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Title: Diboronate crosslinking: Introducing glucose specificity in glucose-responsive dynamic-covalent networks
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Controlled Release
Page Range / eLocation ID:
601 to 611
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. A disposable paper-based glucose biosensor with direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOX) was developed through simple covalent immobilization of GOX on a carbon electrode surface using zero-length cross-linkers. This glucose biosensor exhibited a high electron transfer rate (ks, 3.363 s−1) as well as good affinity (km, 0.03 mM) for GOX while keeping innate enzymatic activities. Furthermore, the DET-based glucose detection was accomplished by employing both square wave voltammetry and chronoamperometric techniques, and it achieved a glucose detection range from 5.4 mg/dL to 900 mg/dL, which is wider than most commercially available glucometers. This low-cost DET glucose biosensor showed remarkable selectivity, and the use of the negative operating potential avoided interference from other common electroactive compounds. It has great potential to monitor different stages of diabetes from hypoglycemic to hyperglycemic states, especially for self-monitoring of blood glucose. 
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  2. Abstract Background

    Hypoglycemia is common in people with cystic fibrosis (pwCF) during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and in the free‐living setting, yet its pathophysiology remains unclear.


    To evaluate hypoglycemia in children and young adults with CF by OGTT and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).


    A 3‐h OGTT was performed in children and young adults with CF and healthy controls (HC). Individuals were classified as experiencing hypoglycemia on OGTT (glucose <70 mg/dL) or not. Insulin, C‐peptide, glucose, glucagon, and incretins were measured. CGM was performed for 7 days in the free‐living setting. Measures of insulin sensitivity, beta cell function accounting for insulin sensitivity, and insulin clearance were calculated.


    A total of 57 participants (40 CF and 17 HC) underwent assessment. Rates of hypoglycemia by OGTT were similar in pwCF (53%, 21/40) compared to HC (35%, 6/17),p = 0.23. PwCF compared to HC had higher A1c; on OGTT higher and later glucose peaks, later insulin peaks; and on CGM more glucose variability. CF Hypo+ versus CF Hypo− had higher lung function, higher insulin sensitivity, higher beta cell function accounting for insulin sensitivity, and decreased CGM variability. When comparing CF Hypo+ to HC Hypo+, although rates of hypoglycemia are similar, pwCF had blunted glucagon responses to hypoglycemia. OGTT hypoglycemia was not associated with CGM hypoglycemia in any group.


    Youth with CF have increased insulin sensitivity and impaired glucagon response to hypoglycemia on OGTT. Hypoglycemia on OGTT did not associate with free‐living hypoglycemia.

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