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Title: The bright supernova 1996cr in the circinus galaxy imaged with VLBI: shell structure with complex evolution

We present broad-band radio flux-density measurements supernova (SN) 1996cr, made with MeerKAT, ATCA, and ALMA, and images made from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The spectral energy distribution of SN 1996cr in 2020, at age t ∼8700 d, is a power-law, with flux density, S ∝ ν−0.588 ± 0.011 between 1 and 34 GHz, but may steepen at >35 GHz. The spectrum has flattened since t = 5370 d (2010). Also since t = 5370 d, the flux density has declined rapidly, with $S_{\rm 9 \, GHz} \propto t^{-2.9}$. The VLBI image at t = 8859 d shows an approximately circular structure with a central minimum reminiscent of an optically-thin spherical shell of emission. For a distance of 3.7 Mpc, the average outer radius of the radio emission at t = 8859 d was (5.1 ± 0.3) × 1017 cm, and SN 1996cr has been expanding with a velocity of 4650 ± 1060 km s−1 between t = 4307 and 8859 d. It must have undergone considerable deceleration before t = 4307 d. Deviations from a circular shell structure in the image suggest a range of velocities up to ∼7000 km s−1, and hint at the presence of a ring- or equatorial-belt-like structure rather than a complete spherical shell.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 2239-2247
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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