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  1. Abstract

    I report on Chandra X-ray observations of SN 2018cqj, a low luminosity Type Ia supernova that showed an Hαline in its optical spectrum. No X-ray emission was detected at the location of the SN, with an upper limit to the X-ray luminosity of 2 × 1039erg s−1.

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    We present broad-band radio flux-density measurements supernova (SN) 1996cr, made with MeerKAT, ATCA, and ALMA, and images made from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The spectral energy distribution of SN 1996cr in 2020, at age t ∼8700 d, is a power-law, with flux density, S ∝ ν−0.588 ± 0.011 between 1 and 34 GHz, but may steepen at >35 GHz. The spectrum has flattened since t = 5370 d (2010). Also since t = 5370 d, the flux density has declined rapidly, with $S_{\rm 9 \, GHz} \propto t^{-2.9}$. The VLBI image at t = 8859 d shows an approximately circular structure with a central minimum reminiscent of an optically-thin spherical shell of emission. For a distance of 3.7 Mpc, the average outer radius of the radio emission at t = 8859 d was (5.1 ± 0.3) × 1017 cm, and SN 1996cr has been expanding with a velocity of 4650 ± 1060 km s−1 between t = 4307 and 8859 d. It must have undergone considerable deceleration before t = 4307 d. Deviations from a circular shell structure in the image suggest a range of velocities up to ∼7000 km s−1, and hint at the presence of a ring- or equatorial-belt-like structure rather than a complete spherical shell.

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    We report on Chandra X-ray observations of ASASSN-18tb/SN 2018fhw, a low luminosity Type Ia supernova (SN) that showed a H line in its optical spectrum. No X-ray emission was detected at the location of the SN. Upper limits to the luminosity of up to 3 × 1039 erg s−1 are calculated, depending on the assumed spectral model, temperature, and column density. These are compared to Type Ia-CSM SNe, SN 2005gj, and SN 2002ic that have been observed with Chandra in the past. The upper limits are lower than the X-ray luminosity found for the Type Ia-CSM SN 2012ca, the only Type Ia SN to have been detected in X-rays. Consideration of various scenarios for the Hα line suggests that the density of the surrounding medium at the time of Hα line detection could have been as high as 108 cm−3, but must have decreased below 5 $\times \, 10^6$ cm−3 at the time of X-ray observation. Continual X-ray observations of SNe which show a H line in their spectrum are necessary in order to establish Type Ia SNe as an X-ray emitting class.

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  4. Abstract

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are a rare class of stellar explosions with luminosities ∼ 10–100 times greater than ordinary core-collapse supernovae. One popular model to explain the enhanced optical output of hydrogen-poor (Type I) SLSNe invokes energy injection from a rapidly spinning magnetar. A prediction in this case is that high-energy gamma-rays, generated in the wind nebula of the magnetar, could escape through the expanding supernova ejecta at late times (months or more after optical peak). This paper presents a search for gamma-ray emission in the broad energy band from 100 MeV to 30 TeV from two Type I SLSNe, SN2015bn, and SN2017egm, using observations from Fermi-LAT and VERITAS. Although no gamma-ray emission was detected from either source, the derived upper limits approach the putative magnetar’s spin-down luminosity. Prospects are explored for detecting very-high-energy (VHE; 100 GeV–100 TeV) emission from SLSNe-I with existing and planned facilities such as VERITAS and CTA.

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    We probe the environmental properties of X-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) at various points along their evolutionary journey, especially the S-T phase, and their conformance with theoretically derived models of SNR evolution. The remnant size is used as a proxy for the age of the remnant. Our data set includes 34 Milky Way, 59 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and 5 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) SNRs. We select remnants that have been definitively typed as either core-collapse (CC) or Type Ia supernovae, with well-defined size estimates, and a thermal X-ray flux measured over the entire remnant. A catalog of SNR size and X-ray luminosity is presented and plotted, with ambient density and age estimates from the literature. Model remnants with a given density, in the Sedov-Taylor (S-T) phase, are overplotted on the diameter-versus-luminosity plot, allowing the evolutionary state and physical properties of SNRs to be compared to each other, and to theoretical models. We find that small, young remnants are predominantly Type Ia remnants or high luminosity CCs, suggesting that many CC SNRs are not detected until after they have emerged from the progenitor’s wind-blown bubble. An examination of the distribution of SNR diameters in the Milky Way and LMC reveals that LMC SNRs must be evolving in an ambient medium which is 30 per cent as dense as that in the Milky Way. This is consistent with ambient density estimates for the Galaxy and LMC.

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  6. Abstract

    SN 2014C was originally classified as a Type Ib supernova, but at phaseϕ= 127 days, post-explosion strong Hαemission was observed. SN 2014C has since been observed in radio, infrared, optical and X-ray bands. Here we present new optical spectroscopic and photometric data spanningϕ= 947–2494 days post-explosion. We address the evolution of the broadened Hαemission line, as well as broad [Oiii] emission and other lines. We also conduct a parallel analysis of all publicly available multiwavelength data. From our spectra, we find a nearly constant HαFWHM velocity width of ∼2000 km s−1that is significantly lower than that of other broadened atomic transitions (∼3000–7000 km s−1) present in our spectra ([Oi]λ6300; [Oiii]λλ4959, 5007; Heiλ7065; [Caii]λλ7291, 7324). The late radio data demand a fast forward shock (∼10,000 km s−1atϕ= 1700 days) in rarified matter that contrasts with the modest velocity of the Hα. We propose that the infrared flux originates from a toroidal-like structure of hydrogen surrounding the progenitor system, while later emission at other wavelengths (radio, X-ray) likely originates predominantly from the reverse shock in the ejecta and the forward shock in the quasi-spherical progenitor He-wind. We propose that the Hαemission arises in the boundary layer between the ejecta and torus. We also consider the possible roles of a pulsar and a binary companion.

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    Type II-P supernovæ (SNe), the most common core-collapse SNe type, result from the explosions of red supergiant stars. Their detection in the radio domain testifies of the presence of relativistic electrons, and shows that they are potentially efficient energetic particle accelerators. If hadrons can also be accelerated, these energetic particles are expected to interact with the surrounding medium to produce a gamma-ray signal even in the multi–TeV range. The intensity of this signal depends on various factors, but an essential one is the density of the circumstellar medium. Such a signal should however be limited by electron–positron pair production arising from the interaction of the gamma-ray photons with optical photons emitted by the supernova photosphere, which can potentially degrade the gamma-ray signal by over ten orders of magnitude in the first days/weeks following the explosion. We calculate the gamma-gamma opacity from a detailed modelling of the time evolution of the forward shock and supernova photosphere, taking a full account of the non-isotropy of the photon interactions. We discuss the time-dependent gamma-ray TeV emission from Type II-P SNe as a function of the stellar progenitor radius and mass-loss rate, as well as the explosion energy and mass of the ejected material. We evaluate the detectability of the SNe with the next generation of Cherenkov telescopes. We find that, while most extragalactic events may be undetectable, Type II-P SNe exploding in our Galaxy or in the Magellanic Clouds should be detected by gamma-ray observatories such as the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array.

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  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  9. ABSTRACT A deep survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud at ∼0.1–100 TeV photon energies with the Cherenkov Telescope Array is planned. We assess the detection prospects based on a model for the emission of the galaxy, comprising the four known TeV emitters, mock populations of sources, and interstellar emission on galactic scales. We also assess the detectability of 30 Doradus and SN 1987A, and the constraints that can be derived on the nature of dark matter. The survey will allow for fine spectral studies of N 157B, N 132D, LMC P3, and 30 Doradus C, and half a dozen other sources should be revealed, mainly pulsar-powered objects. The remnant from SN 1987A could be detected if it produces cosmic-ray nuclei with a flat power-law spectrum at high energies, or with a steeper index 2.3–2.4 pending a flux increase by a factor of >3–4 over ∼2015–2035. Large-scale interstellar emission remains mostly out of reach of the survey if its >10 GeV spectrum has a soft photon index ∼2.7, but degree-scale 0.1–10 TeV pion-decay emission could be detected if the cosmic-ray spectrum hardens above >100 GeV. The 30 Doradus star-forming region is detectable if acceleration efficiency is on the order of 1−10 per cent of the mechanical luminosity and diffusion is suppressed by two orders of magnitude within <100 pc. Finally, the survey could probe the canonical velocity-averaged cross-section for self-annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles for cuspy Navarro–Frenk–White profiles. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 22, 2024
  10. The structure and evolution of wind-blown bubbles (WBBs) around massive stars has primarily been investigated using an energy-conserving model of wind-blown bubbles. While this model is useful in explaining the general properties of the evolution, several problems remain, including inconsistencies between observed wind luminosities and those derived using this formulation. Major difficulties include the low X-ray temperature and X-ray luminosity, compared to the model. In this paper, we re-examine the evolution, dynamics, and kinematics of WBBs around massive stars, using published ionization gasdynamic simulations of wind-blown bubbles. We show that WBBs can cool efficiently due to the presence of various instabilities and turbulence within the bubble. The expansion of WBBs is more consistent with a momentum-conserving solution, rather than an energy-conserving solution. This compares well with the dynamics and kinematics of observed wind bubbles. Despite the cooling of the bubble, the shocked wind temperature is not reduced to the observed values. We argue that the X-ray emission arise mainly from clumps and filaments within the hot shocked wind region, with temperatures just above 106 K. The remainder of the plasma can contribute to a lesser extent. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024