skip to main content

Title: Observation of time-dependent internal charge amplification in a planar germanium detector at cryogenic temperature

For the first time, time-dependent internal charge amplification through impact ionization has been observed in a planar germanium (Ge) detector operated at cryogenic temperature. In a time period of 30 and 45 min after applying a bias voltage, the charge energy corresponding to a baseline of the 59.54 keV$$\gamma $$γrays from a$$^{241}$$241Am source is amplified for a short period of time and then decreases back to the baseline. The amplification of charge energy depends strongly on the applied positive bias voltage with drifting holes across the detector. No such phenomenon is visible with drifting electrons across the detector. We find that the observed charge amplification is dictated by the impact ionization of charged states, which has a strong correlation with impurity level and applied electric field. We analyze the dominant physics mechanisms that are responsible for the creation and the impact ionization of charged states. Our analysis suggests that the appropriate level of impurity in a Ge detector can enhance charge yield through the impact ionization of charged states to achieve extremely low-energy detection threshold (< 10 meV) for MeV-scale dark matter searches if the charge amplification can be stabilized.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Springer Science + Business Media
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The European Physical Journal C
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    The rapid progress that plasma wakefield accelerators are experiencing is now posing the question as to whether they could be included in the design of the next generation of high-energy electron-positron colliders. However, the typical structure of the accelerating wakefields presents challenging complications for positron acceleration. Despite seminal proof-of-principle experiments and theoretical proposals, experimental research in plasma-based acceleration of positrons is currently limited by the scarcity of positron beams suitable to seed a plasma accelerator. Here, we report on the first experimental demonstration of a laser-driven source of ultra-relativistic positrons with sufficient spectral and spatial quality to be injected in a plasma accelerator. Our results indicate, in agreement with numerical simulations, selection and transport of positron beamlets containing$$N_{e+}\ge 10^5$$Ne+105positrons in a 5% bandwidth around 600 MeV, with femtosecond-scale duration and micron-scale normalised emittance. Particle-in-cell simulations show that positron beams of this kind can be guided and accelerated in a laser-driven plasma accelerator, with favourable scalings to further increase overall charge and energy using PW-scale lasers. The results presented here demonstrate the possibility of performing experimental studies of positron acceleration in a laser-driven wakefield accelerator.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    We present a proof of concept for a spectrally selective thermal mid-IR source based on nanopatterned graphene (NPG) with a typical mobility of CVD-grown graphene (up to 3000$$\hbox {cm}^2\,\hbox {V}^{-1}\,\hbox {s}^{-1}$$cm2V-1s-1), ensuring scalability to large areas. For that, we solve the electrostatic problem of a conducting hyperboloid with an elliptical wormhole in the presence of anin-planeelectric field. The localized surface plasmons (LSPs) on the NPG sheet, partially hybridized with graphene phonons and surface phonons of the neighboring materials, allow for the control and tuning of the thermal emission spectrum in the wavelength regime from$$\lambda =3$$λ=3to 12$$\upmu$$μm by adjusting the size of and distance between the circular holes in a hexagonal or square lattice structure. Most importantly, the LSPs along with an optical cavity increase the emittance of graphene from about 2.3% for pristine graphene to 80% for NPG, thereby outperforming state-of-the-art pristine graphene light sources operating in the near-infrared by at least a factor of 100. According to our COMSOL calculations, a maximum emission power per area of$$11\times 10^3$$11×103W/$$\hbox {m}^2$$m2at$$T=2000$$T=2000K for a bias voltage of$$V=23$$V=23V is achieved by controlling the temperature of the hot electrons through the Joule heating. By generalizing Planck’s theory to any grey body and deriving the completely general nonlocal fluctuation-dissipation theorem with nonlocal response of surface plasmons in the random phase approximation, we show that the coherence length of the graphene plasmons and the thermally emitted photons can be as large as 13$$\upmu$$μm and 150$$\upmu$$μm, respectively, providing the opportunity to create phased arrays made of nanoantennas represented by the holes in NPG. The spatial phase variation of the coherence allows for beamsteering of the thermal emission in the range between$$12^\circ$$12and$$80^\circ$$80by tuning the Fermi energy between$$E_F=1.0$$EF=1.0eV and$$E_F=0.25$$EF=0.25eV through the gate voltage. Our analysis of the nonlocal hydrodynamic response leads to the conjecture that the diffusion length and viscosity in graphene are frequency-dependent. Using finite-difference time domain calculations, coupled mode theory, and RPA, we develop the model of a mid-IR light source based on NPG, which will pave the way to graphene-based optical mid-IR communication, mid-IR color displays, mid-IR spectroscopy, and virus detection.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Production cross sections of the standard model Higgs boson decaying to a pair of W bosons are measured in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13$$\,\text {Te\hspace{-.08em}V}$$TeV. The analysis targets Higgs bosons produced via gluon fusion, vector boson fusion, and in association with a W or Z boson. Candidate events are required to have at least two charged leptons and moderate missing transverse momentum, targeting events with at least one leptonically decaying W boson originating from the Higgs boson. Results are presented in the form of inclusive and differential cross sections in the simplified template cross section framework, as well as couplings of the Higgs boson to vector bosons and fermions. The data set collected by the CMS detector during 2016–2018 is used, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138$$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$fb-1. The signal strength modifier$$\mu $$μ, defined as the ratio of the observed production rate in a given decay channel to the standard model expectation, is measured to be$$\mu = 0.95^{+0.10}_{-0.09}$$μ=0.95-0.09+0.10. All results are found to be compatible with the standard model within the uncertainties.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    This paper presents the observation of four-top-quark ($$t\bar{t}t\bar{t}$$tt¯tt¯) production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The analysis is performed using an integrated luminosity of 140 $$\hbox {fb}^{-1}$$fb-1at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected using the ATLAS detector. Events containing two leptons with the same electric charge or at least three leptons (electrons or muons) are selected. Event kinematics are used to separate signal from background through a multivariate discriminant, and dedicated control regions are used to constrain the dominant backgrounds. The observed (expected) significance of the measured$$t\bar{t}t\bar{t}$$tt¯tt¯signal with respect to the standard model (SM) background-only hypothesis is 6.1 (4.3) standard deviations. The$$t\bar{t}t\bar{t}$$tt¯tt¯production cross section is measured to be$$22.5^{+6.6}_{-5.5}$$22.5-5.5+6.6 fb, consistent with the SM prediction of$$12.0 \pm 2.4$$12.0±2.4fb within 1.8 standard deviations. Data are also used to set limits on the three-top-quark production cross section, being an irreducible background not measured previously, and to constrain the top-Higgs Yukawa coupling and effective field theory operator coefficients that affect$$t\bar{t}t\bar{t}$$tt¯tt¯production.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    A search for pair-produced vector-like quarks using events with exactly one lepton (eor$$\mu $$μ), at least four jets including at least oneb-tagged jet, and large missing transverse momentum is presented. Data from proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of$$\sqrt{s}=$$s=13 $$\text {TeV}$$TeV, recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC from 2015 to 2018 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb$$^{-1}$$-1, are analysed. Vector-like partnersTandBof the top and bottom quarks are considered, as is a vector-likeXwith charge$$+5/3$$+5/3, assuming their decay into aW,Z, or Higgs boson and a third-generation quark. No significant deviations from the Standard Model expectation are observed. Upper limits on the production cross-section ofTandBquark pairs as a function of their mass are derived for various decay branching ratio scenarios. The strongest lower limits on the masses are 1.59 $$\text {TeV}$$TeVassuming mass-degenerate vector-like quarks and branching ratios corresponding to the weak-isospin doublet model, and 1.47 $$\text {TeV}$$TeV(1.46 $$\text {TeV}$$TeV) for exclusive$$T \rightarrow Zt$$TZt($$B/X \rightarrow Wt$$B/XWt) decays. In addition, lower limits on theTandBquark masses are derived for all possible branching ratios.

    more » « less